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Jul 4

Being a copy-cat might make it easier to achieve fitness goals – Health24

Struggling to keep to your fitness goals? Or are there any other life goals eluding your grasp?

Well according to new research, the key is to copy those around you.

Researchers from theUniversity of Pennsylvania looked at a new method to nudge people to achieve their goals a "copy-paste" prompt.

One of the reasons why people struggle to reach their goals is due to a gap in information on how to achieve these goals, and while a mentor strategy is one proposal to overcome it, it has some limitations.

READ: Lost your motivation to eat healthy and exercise during the pandemic? You are not alone

Men more amenable

They divided 1 028 participants into three groups looking to exercise more. One group was told to find a routine themselves used by someone they know, one was given a routine by the researchers and another group was just instructed to reach their goals however they wanted.

In ten days, the first group proved to be more dedicated to their goals, sticking better with the routine than the other two groups.

They spent 55.8 and 32.5 more minutes exercising than those with no direction and those with a provided exercise hack respectively.

Men also seemed to be more amenable to the copying method.

ALSO READ: Video games may sabotage fitness among college students

The benefits of copy-paste prompts are mediated by the usefulness of the adopted exercise strategy, commitment to using it, the effort put into finding it, and the frequency of social interaction with people who exercise regularly, write the researchers.

Applicable to other life goals

While we live in a social media world where its easy to follow peoples journeys to their various personal goals, many people forget that they can follow their peers examples, and might need a nudge towards copying others to reach their own goals.

The methods social aspect is another benefit, and could help provide support networks on the way to achieving goals. The effort of researching methods themselves also seemed to give participants an ego boost, motivating their exercising efforts.

Outside of fitness, they posit that this copying method can also be applied to other life goals, like academia, careers, and financial goals.

However, its important to note that participants were enticed with monetary gains if they completed the whole process, which might skew motivations for completing their tasks. The study also doesnt account for long-term benefits of this method.

Still, this might be one time where peer pressure could be to your benefit.

READ: How to train safely outdoors during winter

Image credit: Pixabay

Gabi Zietsman

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Jul 4

Weight loss story: I lost 21 kilos without going to gym and by simply following Intermittent Fasting! – Times of India

When 31-year-old Aiswarya Pandiyan realised that she was inching towards the overweight category, she felt really dejected. Her weight loss journey is a living proof that lifestyle along with a rock-solid determination can contribute to tremendous health benefits. Read on.Name: Aiswarya Pandiyan

Occupation: Team lead

Age: 31 yearsHeight: 5 feet 4 inch

City: Chennai

Highest weight recorded: 71 kgs

Weight lost: 21 kgsDuration it took me to lose weight: 10 months

The turning point: Even though I had gradually gained quite a lot of weight post my marriage, the day I realised that none of my dresses fit me any longer was a huge shocker! I weighed 71 kilos and the fat percentage parameter had put me in the obese category. Even my clothing size had jumped from M to XL! Once, I realised that I needed to lose weight, I tried several diets to get back in shape which really impacted my immune system. Hence, I decided to stick Intermittent fasting and that is when the magic started happening!

My breakfast: I wanted to follow something which I could continue doing in the long run. So, being a South Indian I stuck to eating regular South Indian breakfast like idly, dosa, upma, ragi porridge in portion control.

My lunch: Curry, 1 chapati, a portion of vegetables, boiled legumes, 1-2 eggs, and buttermilk. I switched between chicken and prawns as well.My dinner: I made it a point to have a big, balanced meal for my dinner

Pre-workout meal: I worked out during my fasting window of IF (Intermittent Fasting), so I did not eat anything before my workout.

Post-workout meal: Almonds and 2 boiled eggs

I indulge in: Since I did not go for any diet, I enjoyed regular home-cooked meals. All my meals were balanced with carbs, proteins and fat and I also made it a point to drink a lot of water. Once a week, I would indulge in my favourite Dominos choco lava cake with white sauce pasta

My workout: Initially, I was not very comfortable with extensive work out sessions, so I chose to stick to walking and climbing stairs. Gradually, as I started to lose weight, I balanced my workout routine with cardio and strength training at home. I absolutely vouch on mountain climbers squat variations. I can proudly say that I never step a foot inside any gym and did all my workout at home! And by doing so, I have reduced my fat percentage and toned my physique.

Low-calorie recipes I swear by: Unfortunately, I have realised that I am not a low-carb person. I tried Keto, got sick and my immune system was wrecked.

Fitness secrets I unveiled: Intermittent fasting worked really well for me! Additionally, I ensured to stay consistent with my efforts, eat healthily and stay hydrated.

How do I stay motivated? Even though I received unconditional support from my friends and family in my weight loss journey, there is no bigger motivation than seeing yourself transform. Once, I could see visible results, there was no looking back. Every day felt like a new learning experience on my journey to lose weight.

How do you ensure you dont lose focus? One of the simplest ways of keeping yourself motivated is to take a look at your old photographs and see how far you have come in life. For me, it works as my greatest source of motivation and helps me to keep moving forward in life. I decided to create a Facebook page India Intermittent Fasting for Women to support women of all age groups who wish to lose weight and get back in shape, in a healthy manner. The page has more than 12 thousand members as of now, who motivate and constantly challenge each other to do better.What shape do you see yourself 10 years down the line? I see myself as a very healthy and active individual who is helping others to achieve their weight loss goals.

What are the lifestyle changes you made? I made a lot of lifestyle changes to reach my weight loss goal. Some of them included:1. Eating balanced meals

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Weight loss story: I lost 21 kilos without going to gym and by simply following Intermittent Fasting! - Times of India

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Jul 4

What Is The Body Reset Diet By Harley Pasternak? How It Works – Women’s Health

Whether you're looking to lose weight or not, the idea of doing a "reset" or starting fresh with your diet can be really appealing, especially if you've been struggling to eat healthy lately. If that's the case, an eating plan called the Body Reset Diet could be right up your alley.

It's a program that helped Jessica Simpson drop 100 pounds (!) after giving birth to her third baby in 2019, under the guidance of her trainer and the program developer, Harley Pasternak. (She also built up her postpartum exercise routine, starting out with walking 6,000 steps a day and working her way up to 14,000 steps.)

The Body Reset Diet is a smoothie-involving eating plan that may boost metabolism and yield dramatic results for some people. But is this diet a healthy and sustainable way to eat nutritiously, feel better, and possibly lose weight? We tapped nutritionists to find out.

This diet program is not exactly new: Celebrity trainer Harley Pasternak developed the Body Reset Diet back in 2013. But it's a diet plan that holds strong and garners the attention of many celebs. The inspiration behind the diet [seems to be] to bring together great food in moderation, while encouraging plenty of active movement and water intake throughout the day, says Vanessa Rissetto MS, RD, CDN, co-founder of Culina Health.

The diet involves a lot of liquid meals, though its not completely liquid. And there are different phases, some of which involve pairing other types of simple meals with the Body Reset Diet smoothies at other points during the day.

Its not actually a very long program at all. Body Reset is divided into three five-day phases, Rissetto explains. During each phase there is a focus on different meal formats, but regardless, its a lot of drinking smoothies. That way, you can incorporate a variety of micronutrients, including fiber, protein, and healthy fats, in one glass.

A smoothie may not be the most filling option for a meal, but its definitely convenient to toss ingredients in a blender, pour them out, and take them on the goan the objective of Pasternaks plan, says Rissetto.

The first phase involves three smoothies per day as meals. Phase two involves having two smoothie meals plus one S meal, which stands for single dish; you can have solid foods in the form of a scramble, salad, soup, stir fry, or sandwich, Rissetto explains. The purpose of sticking to a one-item meal is to refrain from overeating, says Rissetto. Plus, one-item meals are simple to prepare, like the smoothies.

During the third phase, two of your meals can be S meals, and you have just one is a smoothie. And in between meals, especially if those involve smoothies, the program allows you two crunchy snacks to keep you satiatedthose will be full of fiber, protein, and healthy fats (for example: an apple, almonds, or edamame).

The Body Reset Diet: Power Your Metabolism, Blast Fat, and Shed Pounds in Just 15 Days

Because this is a lower-calorie diet, theres a huge emphasis on fiber intake to keep you full, and to keep your digestion and metabolism healthy. Thats why many of the smoothies contain high-fiber fruits like apples and peaches. The second two phases emphasize lean protein (think: lots of chicken and eggs) as well as healthy fats like avocado.

During the smoothie phase (a.k.a. phase one), you can have three different types of smoothies for meals: white, red, and green. The white smoothie, or breakfast smoothie, has a Greek yogurt baseyou can add apples or peaches, banana, almonds, and non-fat milk to it.

For lunch, theres the red smoothie, which has a red berry base; it also includes whey protein powder and an orange. The green (dinner) smoothie can be customized with your choice of greens, such as spinach or kale, and can include avocado and Greek yogurt, too. Once you get into the second and third phases, you can introduce more creative recipes for your solid meals, like breakfast burritos, chicken flatbreads, and pumpkin soup. You can find recipes for all the smoothies, S meals, and snack options in Pasternaks Body Reset cookbook.

The foods to stay away from on the Body Reset are anything high in fat or caloriestakeout is off-limits, as is fried food, processed meats, and refined grains. Youll have to skip soda, alcohol, candy, and junk food, too. When it comes to fruit, a huge component of the diet, Pasternak promotes higher-fiber fruits in the smoothies, like pears, as opposed to fruits like watermelon or honeydew, which are lower in fiber.

If youre drinking most of your food, at least at the beginning of the Body Reset Diet, youre likely to lose weight, says Rissetto, especially because youre eating mostly fruit and vegetables and slashing your calorie intake.

One thing to note is that the Body Reset Diet is a short-term program, so you might lose weight initially, but if you stopped the diet immediately after completing the three phases and began eating as you were previously right away, you might gain those pounds back, Rissetto suspects.

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It also might not have a long-term effect on your metabolism, especially if youre not upping your workouts that much along with it, she says. Rissetto also adds that it may not the best plan for anyone whos diabetic, since the smoothies will increase your sugar intake quite a bit.

But even the name of the plan clarifies that this is a reset, so to speak. So it may help you regroup and restart some healthy eating habits, even when you finish the plan.

Pasternak advises skipping a Spin or boot camp class in the beginning of the diet and just walking10,000 steps a dayalong with doing regular resistance training.

Rissetto advises keeping your exercise low-impact, to workouts like yoga, Pilates, and walking. I think the low amount of calories in phases one and two would likely adversely affect you if you had any intense workouts, Rissetto says.

If youre looking for a quick way to shed some weight, the Body Reset Diet may be the ticket. Small, frequent meals for many people can help prevent one from eating too much or too little and may help the body more efficiently use energy and enhance metabolic processes, says Sheena Batura, MS, RDN, LD, registered dietitian at Everlywell. Plus, youre loading up your diet with fruits and veggies, lean protein, and healthy fats, Batura says. The emphasis on fiber is good for gut health and regular digestion, may reduce your cholesterol, and keeps you full for longer, Batura adds.

While you wont be running marathons on this diet, youre still moving and strengthening your body with resistance training, which Batura points out is beneficial for your heart health. In addition, you may save money weekly at the grocery store because youre eating less, Rissetto says, especially in the beginning. You also wont be spending a ton on the fruit and veggies.

On the flip side, your food intake, though chock full of fruits and veggies, is primarily liquid for 10 days out of the whole program. A restrictive diet, for many, is hard to stick toespecially for those who are social beings who may feel limited at social events or see this as a quick way to lose weight without a true intrinsic motivator for a lifestyle change, Batura says. Also, she adds, you might feel less satiated because youre not chewing your food as much when digesting it.

The other issue is that the program isnt exactly sustainable. To keep off a significant amount of weight, Batura says, youd need to continuously lose two to five pounds every week. Short-term weight loss often doesn't equal lifestyle change," Batura says. "Evidence suggests long-term changes make the biggest impact on overall healthand we see this when it comes to how sustained weight loss can positively impact heart health, diabetes, and more."

Ultimately, it might take overhauling your diet (and exercise regimen) beyond the 15-day Body Reset Diet to build toward true lifestyle change, but you may experience some initial weight loss on the plan. You can also continue using the healthy recipes beyond the "reset" to continue your healthy lifestyle.

The bottom line: The Body Reset Diet focuses on smoothies and high-fiber, single-item meals. It may help you lose weight initially, but you should always talk to your doctor before trying a new eating plan to make sure it's right for you.

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Jul 4

High-Protein Diet Plan To Lose Weight And Improve Health – Jollofnews

In the present world, amongst all the damage that is being done to the environment, its hard to say that anything good at all is happening, isnt it? But there is one thingthe realization of staying healthy to battle the pollutants which mankind himself has created. Everybody these days want to walk on the fitness road and stay healthy. There are gyms that have opened up in probably every street of your neighborhood, right? People want to eat right and look fit. Have you ever stopped and wondered if what we are doing is right? You must have got confused upon asking this question. Let us help you understand it a little clearer now.

When you decide to lose weight, what is it that you think of as your first step towards it? You must have probably thought about eating lower calories, restricting your fat intake every day, right? Its an important and a very common conception among people that the most important thing to consider was what one took from their respective diets. People usually only look at eating less to lose those extra kilos. It is easier to look down at your weighing scale and watch your weight get lesser by the day. But, is your body score or your body composition score showing the right numbers? That is what is supposed to matter dear readers.

And in the world of diet, the carbohydrates are what people state as their enemy. To battle this, many kinds of diets have cropped upketo diet, Atkins diet, etc. These diets are usually on the road of being protein-centric. There are diet programs like the Custom Keto Diet which will assist you to step by step to lead a healthy life. Were sure most of you have already begun to follow them already. But have you done your research well? Are protein diets a good idea? Does it harm the body or benefit the body? If you are a beginner, such questions are very common. And were here to solve them for you. Read on.

Understanding Protein And Its Importance

So, together with carbs and fats, proteins is one of the three macronutrients that are essential for our body. Lets take you through the roles that proteins play in our bodies:

Proteins when divided, they form into tiny units known as amino acids. There are 22 different amino acids present in the body, out of which 9 cannot be produced within the body. These 9 amino acids need to be eaten in the form of food. And this is the reason why it is important for us to eat foods that are more protein-packed. When it comes to animal products, they are packed with protein. But speaking about the vegetarian options, they dont usually come packed with all of the essential amino acids. Therefore, it can be combined with other plant sources of proteins like legumes, beans, soy, grains, nuts, seeds, etc.

However, one must understand that yes, protein quality surely is vital, but the answer also lies in the amount of protein that needs to be consumed.

For many, weight loss ideally means watching the weighing scale number decrease. And very few adopt the habit of calorie tracking and analyzing the overall weight. But thats the only limit which people tend to go for when it comes to losing weight.

We need to understand that just making a note of calorie intake isnt all that there is to body weight when you are looking for weight loss. One has to educate oneself about the body composition of his or her body as well. One needs to understand the relationship of metabolism with its body. These are essential to watch for healthy results in the long term.

For beginners, body composition is the understanding number of the relative amount of muscle and fats in the body. One should not just lay emphasis on the dropping fat mass aka FM, but should also lay emphasis on the lean body mass aka LBM as well. If you walk on the calorie deficit diet at the cost of lowering your LBM, your weight might decrease but then internally, you are making your body weaker and exposing it to the risks of contracting chronic ailments. This is where the need for a high-protein diet comes.

The greatest advantage of a high-protein diet is that this diet works well for everybody, regardless of genetic, gender, or even health conditions. Many researchers have spoken about the impressive effects of eating a high-protein diet for losing weight. Here are some:

Eating a lot of protein will help suppress your hunger pangs, this will stop you from overeating. Consuming protein multiplies the production of GLP-1 and PYYthese are the hormones that make you feel satisfied and full after eating. Hence proved that high protein intake will naturally make one eat adequately and not eat more.

The higher protein intake you are invested in, the higher number of calories your body is burning as well. The digestion of protein is known to boost the metabolism rate of the body by a whopping 25-35%. Isnt that crazy? Of course, it is!

Protein helps in building up the muscle mass of your body which is very essential for a good overall body score. It not only helps you build those muscles, but it also helps in maintaining muscles good health too. Now, who doesnt like a strong body? It helps you go about your everyday activities like a boss, the fat burns quicker, and you are looking a lot healthier.

If you have been eating good amounts of proteins every single day, your bones are bound to get stronger and healthier. You are at lower risks of contracting any kind of fractures as well. Healthy bones are all you need to keep your body postures correct.

Studies have shown how wounds have proven to heal faster with high protein diets and that there is absolutely no requirement to go under the knife for surgery.

Following this type of diet isnt difficult. Look at these tips if you dont believe us:

What To Eat And What Not To Eat

Eat More Of:

Eat Less Of:

If you think that all of the above-mentioned information is too much for you to handle, then we suggest that you try programs like the Custom Keto Diet that will assist well in your weight loss journey. Stay healthy peeps!

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Jul 4

Vidyullekha Raman was told not to lose weight if she wanted to be cast in films – The Hindu

The lockdown period has been a difficult phase, especially for those used to an active lifestyle. Besides innovating workouts to suit your style at home, the lack of a fitness buddy was telling for most gym goers.

Actor Vidyullekha Raman knows. She would log on to YouTube and follow simple workout sessions.

But if not for her accountability group a WhatsApp group of individuals with like-minded interests who ensure she keeps up the commitment to her fitness, a journey that she says started 18 months ago the actor would have struggled.

Each day, a workout challenge is posted and they make sure that I spend at least 20-30 minutes doing it. We have to post a video as proof, she says.

Vidyullekha has opened up about the remarkable transformation in her physical appearance via social media posts over the last few days.

The actor has lost nearly 20 kilograms of body weight, and says she is happier for it. It doesnt mean I was any less happy when I was chubby. I loved myself then too. The only difference now is that Im healthy, says Vidyullekha.

The wake-up call, so to speak, happened with her health deteriorating. When you are overweight, the hormonal imbalance is like a roller coaster, she says, adding, The kick was in January 2019, when I couldnt fit into a dress that I had stitched for myself weeks before. I knew then that I had let myself go completely.

A combination of keto and low-carb diet to go with the six-times-a-week workout sessions did the trick.

Although for Vidyullekha, shedding the extra pounds also required her to firm up mentally, considering she was threatened with a loss of opportunity in her line of work.

It did not matter that she is, perhaps, one of the few prominent female comics around in Tamil and Telugu films.

I was told that I wont get the roles I get today if I dropped weight. It points to a culture where the casting happens based on appearance and not on the basis of ones talent, she says, and adds: When you hear it, you tend to develop an insecure feeling. I dont know what the remedy is but I hope women continue to prove that talent speaks more than body measurements.

In 2017, a teary-eyed Vidyullekha spoke about how the film industry perceives fat shaming as comedy during the press conference for the Dhanush-directorial, Power Pandi. She had words of praise for Dhanush, then, for not following the stereotype in his film.

However, Power Pandi remains one of the last notable Tamil films Vidyullekha has been a part of. She has since been plying her trade in Telugu cinema for the most part.

The sagely father

Ask her if it was a conscious choice to stay away from Tamil films, she says: I had done Tamil films in 2018 and 2019. They did not release, unfortunately. Two of my Tamil films are stuck due to COVID-19; one is with Vidharth and the other is a remake of my Telugu film Ninnu Kori with Atharvaa and Anupama [Parameswaran], she says.

Vidyullekha will be seen in two prominent Telugu films; one featuring Bellamkonda Sai Sreenivas and the other being Prabhas Jaan.

Lot of people assume that I am focussing all my energies on Telugu but the truth is I got more opportunities there. The Telugu film industry has realised my work and are giving me far more important characters. At the end of the day, I am happy to be a part of cinema, she adds.

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Jul 4

After Losing 100 Pounds on Keto, I Switched Back to Eating More Carbs and Lost More – Yahoo Lifestyle

Photo credit: Katie Hopkins

From Prevention

My name is Katie Hopkins, and I am 24 years old. I am from Tallahassee, Florida, and I am an operations consultant for the state. I did keto for a year and then switched to a more standard way of eating and lost 135 pounds in less than two years.

I grew up being a super active person. I played sports all year round and never really had to worry about what I ate or how I was going to get my exercise for the day. But once I got to college and no longer had the daily exercise from sports, I started to put on weight.

I kept the same eating habits even though I was not doing anything to burn those calories anymore. And before I started my weight loss journey, my biggest issues were with portion control and not being able to truly commit to losing weight.

From 2013 to 2018, I gained about 100 pounds. At my heaviest weight was 333 pounds, and I was 22 at the time.

I moved to be closer to family, but I also moved because I felt like I was stuck in a rut where I was. I felt like the change of scenery would really give me the push I needed to start my weight loss journey. I knew I needed to take control of my health, and this was the perfect way to do so.

I was tired of feeling tired all the time, wishing I looked different, and always feeling defeated. Once I made the move to Tallahassee, I had a complete mindset reset and said to myself, This is the time you actually do this. No quitting, no excuses. The only one keeping you from your goals is you.

At the beginning of my weight loss journey, I chose to follow the keto diet. I chose it because I had seen so many success stories and people losing huge amounts of weight. I felt like it was the best choice for me at the time because it gave me a way to really focus on what I was putting into my body, and most of the foods that are keto-friendly, I already really liked.

I turned to YouTube for most of my keto info. I followed keto YouTubers for food ideas, reviews, and just support in general. I lost my first 100 pounds on keto.

Story continues

I felt like I got as much as I could out of keto and I was ready for a new challenge and way of eating. I now eat a higher-carb diet, as opposed to keto, which is high-fat and low-carb. I enjoy eating this way now because I dont feel quite as limited, especially going out to eat, as I did on keto. I have so many more healthy foods I can eat now.

Breakfast: Breakfast sandwich (one egg, three egg whites, two slices of sprouted wheat bread, a slice of cheese, two slices turkey bacon) and coffee with almond milk creamer

Lunch: 6 oz. chicken breast, cup rice, a cup of broccoli, feta cheese

Snacks: Some sort of protein bar

Dinner: Turkey burger, whole-wheat bun, slice of cheese, spinach salad with fat-free vinaigrette dressing, feta cheese

Dessert: Chocolate protein powder with almond milk

While eating had always been a bit of a struggle for me, exercise was not. Now, I exercise a lot more. Now that I have control over my eating, exercise has become a bigger focus for me. I love it because it relieves stress, and I love pushing myself to get stronger and faster.

A typical week of exercise for me consists of two to three days of strength training and one to two days of running or another type of cardio. I also really enjoy lifting weights at the gym and improving my strength.

Running used to be something I hated, but I have really come to love it. It makes me push myself hard. There is no better feeling for me than beating my fastest time or longest distance.

These three changes helped me see the most noticeable results in my weight loss.

Change one: I became consistent. I had to accept the fact that weight loss would not happen overnight, and there would be times when I had a bad day of eating. But if you can have those days and not let it turn into a week, you will be successful.

Change two: I ate the things I liked. I believe the reason I was so successful in losing weight is because I let myself eat what I want. I never felt deprived of eating something. I just made sure that I made it fit in my day instead of letting it become an entire day of bad eating.

Change three: I followed people who inspire me. One of the things that helped me along the way was finding people who had similar journeys to me on Instagram and YouTube. They helped inspire me to keep going and keep the end goal in sight. It really is helpful to find people you can relate to when it comes to weight loss.

I know the feeling of thinking it will never happen for you. I always thought I would always be bigger and that losing weight would never happen for me. But that kind of mindset is what kept me from even starting. Once I decided that no matter what, I was going to change my life, everything changed. It was like something finally clicked in my head.

Losing weight has changed my life so much. I have learned to love myself again. Before, I felt like my weight defined me. I truly feel like losing weight has allowed me to become my true self. I am more confident than ever before, and I now have complete control over my health and happiness.

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After Losing 100 Pounds on Keto, I Switched Back to Eating More Carbs and Lost More - Yahoo Lifestyle

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Jul 4

Weight Loss Tip of the Week: How Drinking Green Coffee Helps Lose Weight (Watch Video) – LatestLY

Weight loss is often considered to be a challenging task. However, in reality, it is not as difficult. A person wishing to lose weight should stick to more nutritious foods and follow a disciplined lifestyle. It is said that coffee, due to the presence of caffeine, can aid in weight loss and fat loss due to the presence of caffeine in it.However, even better than coffee is green coffee, which is a superfood that has numerous health benefits. In this week's weight loss tip,let's take a look at the properties of green coffee that can help shed some kilos.Weight Loss Tip of the Week: How to Eat Chickpeas to Lose Weight.

Green coffee is different from regular coffee asits beans are not roasted. Also, green coffee is mild in flavour, similar to herbal tea. The beans of green coffee contain a good amount ofchlorogenic acid which acts as an antioxidant.A study published in the Indian Journal of Innovative Research and Development (IJIRD) indicates that chlorogenic acid found in green coffee can aid in weight loss.Weight Loss Tip of the Week: How to Use Wheatgrass to Lose Weight (Watch Video)

Green Coffee For Weight Loss

As the beans of green coffee are not roasted, the compound retained can help in melting the unwanted fat. Drinking green coffee can boost your metabolic rate due to the presence of chlorogenic acid. This antioxidant also does the work of minimising the release of glucose from the liver into the bloodstream. This, in turn, aids in weight loss as the body burns excess fat to fulfil the requirement of glucose for energy. Green coffee also aidsin curbing appetite which helps avoid overeating and, thus, helps in losing weight.

It is worth having green coffee regularly for overall good health. This beverage not only helps in weight loss but also helps in detoxifying the liver and improving blood circulation. An important thing to note is that weight loss does not solely depend on one food item. A healthy diet and regular exercise help in achieving the desired result.

(This article is written for an informative purpose and should not be substituted for medical advice. Kindly consult your doctor before trying any tips.)

(The above story first appeared on LatestLY on Jul 04, 2020 11:02 AM IST. For more news and updates on politics, world, sports, entertainment and lifestyle, log on to our website latestly.com).

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Jul 4

Weight Loss: Drink THIS juice daily to get rid of excess pounds – PINKVILLA

Want to get rid of those love handles? Aside from a healthy diet and workout, make sure to add this juice for better and faster results.

Weight loss can be stressful for some. You need a lot of patience as it can not happen overnight. Instead of stressing, which will only deteriorate your weight loss journey, make sure you focus on your healthy diet and physical activity. And follow certain weight loss tips and tricks which are not only easy to follow but also effective. Today we are talking about a healthy juice made from Petha aka Ask Gourd aka Winter Melon and how it can aid to lose fat.

For the unversed, the vegetable has a sturdy green body and white flesh. If you are thinking you have heard the name before somewhere then you are right. There is a popular Agra based sweet dish called Petha. The dish is also prepared from the same veggie. This gourd vegetable is packed with several nutrients and should be added to your diet for overall better health as well.

Ash gourd and wieght loss

As per several studies, water-dense foods like ash gourd may help people lose weight.

It is low in calories and rich in soluble fiber which means it will keep you full for a good time without worrying about calories.

The potassium content acts as a diuretic so if you have water weight then you should definitely have the same.

Vitamin B2 is good for energy levels, facilitates the activity of thyroid gland and stress hormones which indirectly help in weight loss.

It also takes care of the digestive system. And the better gut is linked to weight loss. So, if you have acidity, ulcers and heartburn then you should include this vegetable.

It is also one of the best sources of vitamin C and flavonoids and these help to amp our immunity.

It also alkalizes our body as well and recently we shared how following the alkaline diet can aid in weight loss.

So, drink fresh juice of petha every morning as it acts as a sponge and removes all the toxins from your body, leaving you super cool.

If you are on Keto diet then well you can add this non-starchy vegetable to your diet. They are low in carbohydrates and sugars and it becomes an ideal component of a keto diet.

Just cut boiled ash gourd vegetables and season it with salt and pepper. You can incorporate this on a regular basis.

Check out the recipe of Petha Juice right here:

1. First, peel off the skin of the Petha.

2. Make small slices. Make sure to remove the seeds which are in the middle portion.

3. Grind them in mixer or grate. Discard the juice with the help of a clean cloth.

Follow the video to know more.

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Weight Loss: Drink THIS juice daily to get rid of excess pounds - PINKVILLA

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Jul 4

Halle Berry Cut These 3 Things Out Of Her Diet Years Ago And Hasn’t Looked Back Since – Yahoo Lifestyle

From Women's Health

Halle Berry says that her diabetes diagnosis drastically changed how she eats.

Since then, she's cut out sugar, white carbs, and conventional wine in order to manage her condition and feel as healthy as possible.

Today, Halle enjoys low-sugar berries, low-carb comfort foods like zucchini noodles and cauliflower mash, and organic keto wine.

As huge a part of my life as fitness is, I really believe that what we put in our mouths has the biggest impact on our health of any aspect of our lifestyle.

I've seen the profound power of food firsthandand throughout my life, I've made significant changes to my diet in order to support my health and well-being. Ever since being diagnosed with diabetes at 22, there are certain foods I just won't touch anymore.

People often ask me if it's hard to avoid certain foods and if I miss themand my answer? Not at ALL.

I'll admit, it's true that changing the way you eat is often incredibly difficult at first. (Believe me, I remember the mood swings and the cravings!) But after some timefor me, it was about three weeksthose cravings disappear and taste buds change. Honestly, I feel infinitely healthier and more vibrant after giving a few specific foods the bootand I wouldn't go back for the world.

Of course, everyone's journey towards their optimal health looks a little different, but saying goodbye to the following foods has made all of the difference for me (particularly in regards to managing my diabetes).

When I was 19 or 20 years old, right before I was diagnosed with diabetes, I was a complete sugar addict. I started the day with some sort of sugary cereal like Lucky Charms or Cocoa Puffs and I always, always had a candy bar or some sort of hard candy (Jolly Ranchers and Hot Tamales were my go-to's) on me. I was sugared-up all the time.

After my diagnosis, though, it was like a switch flipped. My health was on the line, so I went cold turkey on my sugar-filled ways. Out the window went the candy, the desserts, and even super-sweet fruit. At first, it was hard. I'd relied so much on sugar my entire life that I had headaches and terrible mood swings when I quit.

Story continues

Within a few weeks, though, I started to feel better. Eventually, my desire to eat sugar completely disappeared. I didn't even like the flavor anymore. Now, even if you put a giant plate of dessert in front of me, I am zero percent interested. The only time I eat sweets these days is on my kid's birthdaysand that's for them, not me! I'll snack on low-sugar fruits like blackberries and raspberries, but that's about it.

After giving sugar the boot, I quickly learned that the body breaks down refined carbs straight into sugar, so I swore off those in order to better manage my diabetes, too. I ditched rice (yes, even brown rice), pasta, and breadand never looked back.

I know some of you are wondering, how could you ever swear off bread? But just like with sugar, when you give your body enough time without it, your palette changes and it loses its appeal. (Bonus perk: I no longer miss out on a beautiful meal out at a restaurant because I've filled up on the bread basket.)

As I cut these white carbs out of my diet and learned more about a keto lifestyle, I began to cut back on high-carb foods further and swap in low-carb alternatives and plenty of healthy fats.

So, instead of having mashed potatoes, I make cauliflower mash with butter and salt. It's so delicious and creamy, my kids don't even know the difference. Or, when my kids eat pasta, I opt for zucchini noodles. These simple swaps make it easy for me to enjoy a meal with my kids and still nourish my body in the way that works for me.

For me, the final piece of the puzzle was wine. I have always loved wine, but as I upgraded the rest of my lifestyle to manage my diabetes and feel as healthy as possible, I wondered if there was a better way to enjoy my wine.

When I discovered Dry Farm Wines a few years ago, I was intrigued. Their natural, organic, and biodynamic wines don't contain any added sugars or chemicals, so they're low-sugar enough to be keto-friendly and don't have as much alcohol as the average bottle.

The earthier, hearty flavor of these wines took some getting used to at first, but now I'd rather drink them than anything. While conventional wines often got me buzzed fast and left me with a headache, these did not. Yet again, I wouldn't go back to the old stuff for a second.

Halle Berry is a producer, director, and actress. Now known as one of the fittest women in Hollywood, Halle recently launched rspin, a community for stories, conversations, and products for health and wellness seekers. In her weekly WH column and #FitnessFriday Instagram posts, she shares a personal look into her own health and fitnessalong with the tips, tricks, and advice behind her famously fit physique.

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Jul 3

Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division I Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude – United States…

Authors: Sam T. Lawson, Julia C. Gardner, Mary Jo Carnot, Samuel S. Lackey, Nanette V. Lopez, and Jay T. Sutliffe

Corresponding Author:Jay Sutliffe, PD, RDFlagstaff AZ, 86011Jay.sutliffe@nau.edu928-523-7596

Sam T. Lawson is an undergraduate research assistant and student at Northern Arizona University.

Julia C. Gardner is a research coordinator with the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University. Mary Jo Carnot is professor of Counseling, Psychological Sciences, and Social Work at Chadron State College in Chadron, NE.

Samuel S. Lackey is the Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at Northern Arizona University.

Nanette V. Lopez is Assistant Professor in Health Sciences at Northern Arizona University.

Jay T. Sutliffe is Professor of Nutrition and Foods and the Director of the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, AZ.

AbbreviationsHEI: healthy eating indexg: gramsmg: milligramsoz: ounceskcal: kilocaloriesstd.: standardDGA: Dietary Guidelines for AmericansUSDA: United States Department of AgricultureRDA: recommended dietary allowanceRM: repetition maximum

ABSTRACT

College students are notorious for having poor quality diets and student-athletes are no exception. Collegiate football student-athletes often fail to meet overall energy requirements necessary to meet activity demands (65). The research herein assessed diet quality, body composition and physical performance of selected student athletes following completion of a brief, 8-week nutrition education intervention. The participants consisted of 55 Division I collegiate football players, aged 18-24 years (mean age 19.81.2yrs). Results indicated that group education sessions on nutrition had minimal impact on outcomes, perhaps due to the voluntary nature of the training. However, independent of the intervention, there were significant changes across time for the total scores on the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), strength performance measures, and total body water. Participants with higher HEI-2015 scores versus lower scores did not differ on strength performance or body composition outcomes. Specific nutrients, including sodium, protein, and solid fats negatively impacted strength performance, especially for the bench press measures. At moderate altitudes, athletes may struggle to maintain sufficient hydration (41). In this study, athletes with higher hydration levels (based on total body water and extracellular water) improved performance from pre to post assessments of strength performance in bench press, back squat, and power clean. The results highlight the importance of nutrition on athletic performance, especially the negative impact of unhealthy choices. Educational sessions on nutrition designed to improve eating habits may need to consider social influences, including everyday eating situations, via a combination of group and individualized approaches.

Keywords: micronutrients, nutrition intervention, athlete, body-composition, moderate altitude

INTRODUCTION

College students tend to have poor dietary habits that include low micronutrient intake and high amounts of processed foods (36). Studies indicate that college students report low fruit and vegetable intake, with an average consumption of two servings of combined fruits and vegetables daily which fails to meet dietary guidelines (18, 21, 22). Although college students often adopt new dietary habits that are frequently maintained throughout life, their eating behaviors are typically unhealthy and include excessive consumption of processed foods, skipping meals, and/or eating at irregular times (62). Specifically, students who report following a Western diet consume the highest quantities of refined and energy-dense foods labeled high in fat and sugar, resulting in an increased disease risk (5). In this period of nutrition transition, college-aged individuals are consuming diets high in animal-source foods and eating more highly processed grains and carbohydrate rich meals resulting in lower fiber intake (53).

College student-athletes have higher energy demands due to exercise, training, and competition, but often consume nutrient intakes similar to or below recommended dietary allowances (RDA) (29), with many failing to meet energy requirements for their training style and intensity (46,60). Among those student-athletes who fail to meet their minimum energy requirements, football student-athletes have been identified in at least one study as having the greatest energy deficit (65). Research has noted that optimal nutrient intake along with supplementation, if needed, improves athletic performance and ultimately aids in recovery (11,30,63). Research has also noted that student-athletes who work with a sports dietitian have better dietary habits than those who seek nutrition knowledge from strength and conditioning coaches or athletic trainers (26). Among these positive dietary behaviors are consuming less fast food, not skipping meals, and eating a greater amount of whole foods (26).

To help student-athletes improve the quality of their diet, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 assessment which generates a diet quality score based upon nutrient intakes, is a useful tool (68). Developed with key recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), the HEI-2015 can be used to assess health risks among specific populations (58). For example, populations with adherence to a high HEI-2015 dietary pattern have a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers (47).

Diet quality plays an essential role in desired weight gain as many micronutrients have synergistic qualities allowing for better nutrient absorption from a wide variety of foods (32). This factor can impact football athletes because of documented evidence that a proportion of coaches falsely believe that certain positions require maintaining a higher weight or specific physique (9,10). Deliberate weight gain by football athletes through consumption of unhealthy foods can lead to metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (6,15). Intentional dietary programming should be considered for football athletes, specifically offensive and defensive linemen due to their elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (69). However, athletes should be warned against the sudden or excessive gain in body fat as that may increase their risk for metabolic syndrome (67).

Student-athletes who receive nutrition counseling could have improved physical performance while increasing their lean body mass and maintaining a minimum threshold of energy (1). Many student-athletes receive nutrition information from athletic trainers and strength and conditioning coaches. Unfortunately, these individuals often lack nutrition knowledge, certifications, and/or adequate time to properly counsel student-athletes on dietary information. Therefore, consultations with a trained dietetics professional may benefit student-athletes (31). According to Hull et al. (27), student-athletes with access to a sports dietician reported improved dietary patterns such as eating before exercise, healthy post-exercise meals, and more nutrient dense meals while traveling; all of these dietary improvements may lead to improved performance and recovery.

The primary aims of this study were to improve diet quality hydration, body composition, and performance outcomes among football student-athletes. Exploratory aims included examining intake of specific nutrients and their impact on performance. Specifically, this study was designed to address the following hypotheses:

Materials and Methods

ParticipantsParticipants were recruited from the mens football team at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I program. These student-athletes primarily train, practice, and compete at 7,000 feet above sea level, which is considered to be at moderate altitude (14). A total of 65 participants were enrolled, with 10 lost to follow-up procedures, resulting in 55 participants who completed measures at both the initial stage and 8-weeks post-baseline period. Participants were 18-24 years of age (mean age 19.8 1.2yrs) and ethnically diverse, self-identifying as African-American (41.8%), Caucasian (49.1%), Southeast Asian (1.8%), and other (7.3%). No exclusionary health criteria were developed for this study, as all NCAA student-athletes are required to complete yearly athletic physicals to screen for possible health risks. Participants were informed of the minimal risks of the study and provided written informed consent. The experimental research procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board #982568.

Study DesignBy design, this was a non-randomized pilot study where each subject served as his own control for measurements completed at baseline and 8-weeks post-baseline. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of implementation for consideration of future studies with collegiate sports teams. Following the baseline body composition testing, all participants received a five-minute individualized nutrition education with specific dietary recommendations to help improve their body composition parameters. After completion of baseline measures, participants were encouraged to attend three optional nutrition education sessions. To minimize scheduling conflicts, nutrition education sessions were offered every other week, during the middle of the week and on weekends. Sessions occurring in the same week covered identical material allowing all participants to receive the information uniformly. Each 45-minute face-to-face session included a lecture-style presentation that began with a food demonstration, followed by a lecture with a slideshow presentation, and time for open discussion. Sessions started with 10 minutes of the food demonstrations, followed by 20-minutes of nutrition education and 15 minutes of open discussion which typically centered on personal questions about the participants diet. The food demonstration included a discussion about why a particular meal would be considered effective fuel for the athletes. The participants were made aware of the nutrition education sessions through a group messaging app utilized by the athletic department which contained a link for an online sign-up sheet for testing and nutrition education sessions. Reminders were sent to participants via text messaging and email.

Diet Quality and AssessmentUndergraduate and graduate students, in conjunction with faculty, were trained to collect Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour (ASA24) diet recall, blood pressure, and body composition from each participant. Nasco food models/replicas, depicting serving sizes of commonly eaten foods, were used to confirm the serving sizes of food and beverages consumed during the 24-hour diet recalls. The ASA24 is a web-based tool developed by the National Cancer Institute to accurately collect 24-hour diet recalls, commonly known as food diaries (ASA24, 2019). Although the ASA24 is a self-administered program, to ensure completion and accuracy, the 24-hour diet recalls were performed by trained study personnel.

Dietary measures of kilocalories, sugar, fiber, cholesterol, total vegetable, total fruit, total grain, total protein foods, total dairy, vitamin D, calcium, potassium, sodium, and solid fat were collected via ASA24. The HEI-2015 was generated to provide an overall diet quality score from the data collected from ASA24. The HEI-2015 diet scores range from 0 -100, with 0 being the lowest diet score and 100 being the highest. An HEI-2015 score of 50 was chosen to represent a cutoff score since scores below 50 have been classified to represent a poor diet (23).

Anthropometric and Body-Composition MeasurementsEvaluation of body composition was conducted using tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) via the Seca mBCA 515 (8). BIA is an efficient and non-invasive technique that enables the determination of body composition based on the measurement of electrical characteristics of the human body over five body regions, including left and right arms and legs, and the torso. The data can be used to assess metabolic activity, energy consumption, energy reserves, fluid status, and abdominal fat. Phase angle (phA) in BIA is a validated measurement that correlates with the percentage of body fat (%BF), body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), and total body water (TBW) (37). A low phA is associated with increased morbidity and nutritional risk (39,51). Because phA is affected by body geometry, anthropometric measurements also need to be considered. Individuals with hydration outliers (i.e., unstable extracellular and intracellular water ratios) can obtain a phA measurement when using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, which uses the plot resistance and reactance normalized per height (35,64).

Nutrition InterventionParticipants were offered the opportunity to attend up to three optional, in-person sport-specific nutrition education sessions. The sessions were conducted over 8-weeks with those who participated typically averaging one session, every other week. The first session focused on the sport-specific nutrition topics related to macronutrients, micronutrients, and timed-eating. Macronutrient content focused primarily on the importance of proper carbohydrate and protein intake while information on micronutrients stressed the necessary diet for a body under physical stress due to training. Participants were encouraged to achieve adequate macronutrient and micronutrient intake through the consumption of whole foods, due to their greater nutrient density compared to processed foods and supplements. The second session focused on supplementation for an anaerobic training style with topics ranging from dietary supplements (e.g., protein powder and fish oil) to performance-based supplements (e.g., creatine and caffeine). The last session addressed the relationship between hydration and performance, including awareness of dietary, physical, and environmental factors that may promote dehydration. Participants were also provided information on how to calculate sweat rate in order to help them stay adequately hydrated through practices and training sessions. As previously mentioned, each session included a short food demonstration for preparing meals containing micronutrient dense-foods that met the minimum number of calories recommended per portion for football athletes.

Strength PerformanceAssessment also included strength testing for participants in the study. The primary goal of winter off-season training for football players is to increase their absolute strength and muscular hypertrophy, or more commonly known as increasing muscle size. The testing included a micro-cycle started by using a 1RM test on the power clean, squat, and bench. At the end of the training cycle, the 1RM was repeated to measure strength gains in each lift. The tests were conducted on three separate days to allow time for full recovery between testing days. Power cleans were tested first, followed by back squat and bench press. The athletes were familiar with all testing protocols provided by the Head Strength Coach and the assistant strength coaches.

Statistical AnalysisTo address the hypothesis regarding the impact of educational sessions on macro- and micronutrient consumption, supplementation, and sport hydration, participants were grouped based on whether they attended any of the three optional educational sessions. Initial grouping was based on comparing those who attended any educational sessions (experimental) with those who did not (control). Strength training outcomes, diet quality, and body composition variables were measured twice, at baseline and at 8-weeks post-baseline. Multiple 22 ANOVAs with time as a within-subjects variable and education as a between-subject variable were analyzed. Because attendance at educational sessions did not result in significant effects, groups were collapsed to consider change across time, with the initial consultation with individual athletes considered an educational session. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare selected variables across the two time periods.

Additional analyses were performed on specific dietary, body composition, and performance variables measured at 8-weeks post-baseline. Independent samples t-tests used median split comparisons for sodium, protein, and dietary solid fat to compare high and low groups on fat-free mass and performance measures. The HEI-2015 total score of 50 (USDA, 2019) was similarly used to separate participants into two groups, who were then compared using independent samples t-tests for BMI, weight change, fat-free mass, absolute fat mass and phase angle. Median splits were also examined based on extracellular water and total body water to determine impact on performance measures. All analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 26 software (28).

RESULTS

Analyses from the 22 ANOVAs using educational session attendance and time as independent variables indicated few differences between experimental and control groups. This unanticipated pattern of results suggested that there might be preexisting differences in our groups, such as ethnicity differences. Participation in the educational sessions was not well attended. Out of the initial group of 65 participants, 60% did not attend any educational sessions. Twenty percent attended one educational session, 12.3% attended two sessions, and 7.7% attended all three. When groups were collapsed to compare measures at baseline and 8-weeks post-baseline using paired sample t-tests, significant changes were seen in phase angle (t(53) = -2.301, p=.025) HEI-2015 total score (t(54) = -2.046, p = .046), total body water (t(53) = -2.501, p = .015), bench press (t(54) = -6.420, p < .001), power clean (t(54) = -3.494, p = .001) and squat (t(54) = -6.006 , p < .001). Marginal changes (p < .10) occurred for calcium and energy deficit measures (Table 1).

Table 1: Outcome Measures Collapsed Across Educational Session Attendance

Note. One participant was unable to complete the BIA measures. *p<.05, ** p<.001 Abbreviations: mcg, micrograms; mg, milligram, g, gram; kg, kilogram; %, percent; kcal, kilocalorie; oz, ounces; sd, standard deviation; BMI, Body Mass Index, HEI-2015, Healthy Eating Index- 2015

Education (see Table 2) indicated a participant attended at least one of the three optional intervention sessions. For energy deficit, there were marginal but nonsignificant changes over time (p < .10) (Table 2). Number of education sessions attended had no significant effect on HEI-2015 total score (p > .05) (Table 2).

Table 2: Energy Deficit and Total HEI Score Differences Based Upon Nutrition Education Session Attendance

*p<.05, ** p<.001Abbreviations: Ed education; HEI, healthy eating index; kcal, kilocalories; SD, standard deviation

Following the initial group comparisons, an analysis was conducted at week 8. The examination was intended to assess whether making healthier diet choices impacted performance measures. HEI-2015 total scores were examined, as well as specific nutrients (i.e., sodium, protein, and solid fats) using data from the ASA24.

A HEI-2015 total score of 50, data taken at week 8, was used to separate participants into two groups to compare 8-week body composition outcomes of weight change and performance outcome measures including, bench, power clean, and squat. Table 3 evaluated the relationship between the two groups differentiated by HEI-2015 total score and body composition parameters. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups (Table 3). Additionally, the two HEI-2015 groups were compared on 8-week outcomes including BMI, fat free mass, absolute fat mass and phase angle (Table 3). There were no significant differences between HEI-2015 groups on any of these outcome measures.

Table 3: Diet Quality and Body Composition Assessment at 8-weeks

Abbreviations: HEI, healthy eating index; BMI, body mass index; kg, kilogram; std., standard

Median splits of sodium, protein, and solid fats were used to divide participants into two groups and compared on the outcome measures of power clean, squat, bench press, and weight change at week 8. Participants who consumed lower levels of sodium (< 7427.5 g daily) performed better on squat (t(49) = -2.147, p = .036) and bench press (t(49) = -2.390, p = .021) measures, and tended to perform better on power clean, although this difference was not significant (t(48) = -1.685, p= .098) (Table 4). Participants who consumed higher levels of protein (>186.9 g) were not significantly different in power clean (t(48) = -.835, p = .408), squat (t(49) = -1.539, p = .130) or bench (t(49) = -1.807, p = .077), although bench press measures had a non-significant tendency to be higher for those in the lower protein group (Table 4). Participants who consumed fewer solid fats (< 66.0 g) were not significantly different in power clean (t(48) = -1.453, p = .153) or squat measures (t(49) = -1.825, p = .111), but performed better on bench press measures (t(49) = -2.50, p = .014) (Table 4). Due to the moderate altitude location of the research, median splits on extracellular water and total body water were examined in respect to the effects on performance outcome measures. All differences in performance were significant indicating better performance outcomes for student athletes with higher extracellular water and total body water. Specifically, those with higher levels of extracellular water (21.7 %) had a better performance for the bench press (t(49) = 4.216, p < .001) , power clean (t(47) = 2.819, p = .007) and squat (t(49) = 3.420, p = .001). (Table 4). Additionally, those with higher level of total body water ( 56.4 %) had a better performance for the bench press (t(49) = 4.482, p < .001) , power clean (t(47) = 2.819, p < .001) and squat (t(49) = 3.419, p = .001) (Table 4).

Table 4: Strength Assessment and HEI Scores, Sodium, Protein, Solid Fat, Extracellular Water, and Total Body Water at 8-weeks

Note. a, median splits based upon participant results at week 8Abbreviations: HEI, healthy eating index; mg, milligrams; g, grams; kg, kilogram; std., standard

DISCUSSION

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sport-specific nutrition education on diet quality, body composition, and strength training performance. The results indicated (i) improvements in diet quality (ii) body composition parameters remained constant (iii) dietary intake of sodium, excessive protein, and solid fat negatively impacted strength performance, and (iv) increased hydration status have proven statistically significant and can positively impact strength performance.

Sugar, fiber, cholesterol, total vegetable, total fruit, total grains, total dairy, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium outcomes did not result in any significant improvement over time, and were not associated with strength performance. The nutrition education intervention did not significantly improve HEI-2015 total scores, but diet quality improved over time. Although prior research indicated dietary compliance and nutritional knowledge improved following an 8-week nutrition education intervention among adolescent swimmers (50), the majority of participants in the present study did not complete the optional sessions. In the current study, the nutrition education intervention did substantially decrease energy deficit. Prior research demonstrated that energy deficit among athletes was reduced following attendance at four nutrition educational sessions (55). It is possible that participants in the study herein may have been seeking nutrition information from different sources such as the Internet, coaches, family, and friends (13), resulting in increases in calorie consumption. In the current study, the nutrition education sessions intervention yielded mixed results on HEI-2015 total scores and energy deficit. However, all participants received a brief individualized dietary consultation following baseline measures. Therefore, brief individualized recommendations may be an effective intervention strategy to make improvements in diet quality and reduce energy deficit.

Dietary quality was not a predictor of body composition in this study. Participants with HEI-2015 total scores of 50 and above were comparable to those with scores below 50 on BMI, fat-free mass, weight maintenance, and phase angle. Results from a previous study indicate that a higher diet quality score was associated with positive body composition parameters such as, lower body fat in adult men (16), and weight maintenance among university students (38). Additional research indicates that diet quality was negatively associated with snacking processed foods, but positively associated with body fat (4). The negative impact of poor snack choices may explain why our participants who scored lower on the HEI-2015 had greater, although statistically insignificant, fat mass. However, in contrast to the results presented by a different study (71), phase angle was not a useful assessment for measuring nutritional status because participants with lower diet quality scores had higher phase angle scores.

Dietary intake of sodium was a negative predictor of strength performance as measured by power clean, squat, and bench press. Participants reported consumption of foods with excessive amounts of sodium which is common among college students who frequently consume processed foods in campus cafeterias or fast food restaurants (3,49). Previous research suggests that slightly elevated sodium intake above the suggested daily amount (i.e. 2,000 mg) may help improve athletic performance (34,43). However, sodium consumption is typically timed in accordance to exercise (12). In the current study, not only was excessive sodium consumption detrimental to physical performance, but consuming higher than recommended amounts of sodium (2,300mg/day) was identified as resulting in negative implications for future health, including increased risk for hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke (45), and death (42).

There is a common assumption that protein supplementation is associated with greater gains in muscle mass and strength. This study found a trend toward greater strength gains when protein was not consumed in excess (1.8g/kg). In fact, protein supplementation has been shown to have little to no effect on trained individuals when dietary protein needs are met (48,54), including attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage (17). Protein supplements are processed food products and lack many essential nutrients necessary to sustain a healthy lifestyle (56). Because of the nutrient deficiency of protein supplements, it is recommended that collegiate football student-athletes avoid intake if they are already meeting their needs through a healthy diet (54).

Dietary intake of solid fat was negatively associated with physical performance; athletes who consumed less solid fat had greater improvement in strength performance. Non-athlete, college students have also reported a high intake of dietary fat consumption (70). High intake of dietary solid fats, which are common in processed food and fast food, can hinder physical performance (7,2). Elite athletes showed the greatest increase in sport performance when their diet consisted of a high consumption of protein and carbohydrates, but limited consumption of dietary fat (2). Although not measured in the study, frequent consumption of fast food (e.g., French fries and pizza) among college students could explain the high intake of solid fats reported by participants in the current study (20,52). The fact that university students tend to rate the most important factors for food selection to be taste, value, convenience, and cost may explain the prevalence of consuming high-fat processed, fast food (66).

Hydration is a crucial aspect in sport, especially when athletes are competing at elevation. Increased hydration status appears to positively impact strength performance (44). Extracellular water and total body water can be used as hydration status indicators; a deficit of total body water is predictive of dehydration (19, 24). In a study conducted among college age athletes, increases in intracellular water, which constitutes 65% of total body water, were predictive of improved performance level (61). Insensible evaporation of water is higher at altitude, increasing the likelihood of hypo-hydration (33). To allow for positive training adaptations at altitude, hydration status needs to be optimized (57).

CONCLUSIONS

The number of nutrition education sessions attended had no significance on improvements in HEI-2015 total score. However, there were significant increases in HEI-2015 total scores from baseline to week 8, indicating that the individualized nutrition intervention that every participant received may have been an effective intervention strategy. The HEI-2015 total score may indicate the impact of unhealthy diets as it is a combination of all aspects of ones diet but the examination of specific nutrients may be a better indicator for how performance may be affected. These individual markers of performance could be hidden by a HEI-2015 total score as one part of a diet might be considered good while another portion might be poor resulting in what looks to be an average diet. The potential performance markers seen in this study were sodium, protein foods, and solid fats which, when eaten in greater amounts shown to have negative performance effects.

APPLICATIONS IN SPORT

High dietary intake of sodium, protein, and solid fat appeared to have a negative impact on strength performance. Although not measured in the current study, consumption of fast food and processed foods, which tend to be high in sodium and solid fats, should be limited in athletes due to their tendency to be detrimental to physical performance. A well-balanced diet should be encouraged as a variety in dietary intake improves performance and disease prevention (25,40,59). Participants with a HEI-2015 total score 50.0 had overall, though statistically insignificant, less fat mass, lower BMI, and better weight maintenance. Strength performance improved from baseline to week 8 in 1 RM power clean, squat, and bench press; athletes who consumed lower amounts of sodium, protein, and solid fat had greater physical performance than those who consumed higher amounts. Due to the lack of significant findings from the intervention, future research could consider using an equivalency trial to compare the effectiveness between an individualized nutrition intervention at baseline and a lecture/classroom style nutrition intervention conducted over time.

Strengths and Limitations

There were numerous strengths in this study, including expanding upon previously collected data from another research study (65). Participant follow-up was successful, despite the lack of incentives. Researchers assisting with data collection were blinded to nutrition education intervention status to avoid bias. Additionally, having the strength and conditioning staff perform data collection reduced potential bias from researchers. The established professional relationship with the strength and conditioning staff increased opportunities for nutrition-related research while assisting athletes improve their diet and performance.

However, this study was not without limitations. Dietary recalls were conducted over only one 24-hour period, which does not accurately represent a participants daily dietary intake. Additionally, reporting bias from participants may have resulted in lower reported amounts of less-nutrient dense foods, sweets, and alcohol. Limited variability in dietary intake reduced the likelihood of statistical significance. Lastly, nutrition educational sessions were optional, making it difficult to identify a clearly defined experimental group.

While scripted education at the time of testing body composition may impact athletes diet, there appears to be a disconnect from nutrition knowledge provided and what is actually implemented by athletes. Thus, application strategies for diet as opposed to knowledge enhancement may be more appropriate in determining the effect on performance. Individually reviewing the dietary analysis with each participant could improve understanding among the athletes regarding how their diet affects performance. Athletes who reside and train at altitude (e.g., 6,000 feet) are recommended to increase carbohydrate, hydration, and iron (on an individual basis) intake due to altered environmental conditions (41).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Ethics Approval and Consent to ParticipateThis study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Northern Arizona University.

Consent for PublicationNot applicable

Availability of Data and MaterialsThe datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Competing InterestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.

FundingThis research was funded by the Eric M. Lehrman 2015 Trust.

Authors ContributionsJay Sutliffe: secured funding; developed study design; collected data; wrote and edited manuscript

AcknowledgementsThe authors would like to acknowledge the support of the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University as well as the individual athletes who participated in this research. Special mentions go to Jason Farrow, Heather Marquis, Chris Stanley, Steven Stanley, and Hannah Olsen for their help during data collection.

REFERENCES

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Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division I Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude - United States...

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