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Jan 14

Maple Valley Senior News Updated 1-14-2020 – Voice of the Valley

The Senior Program at the Greater Maple Valley Community Center, located at 22010 SE 248th St. in Maple Valley, invites all adults ages 50+ to come and see what we are all about! Call us at 425-432-1272 with any questions or visit our website http://www.maplevalleycc.org for more information and our monthly calendar.

We would like to offer our sincere thanks to Covington Place Sr. Apts. for their continued support of our programs.

Trips, Groups, Special Events

Payment for all trips is due at time of registration. Cancellations are refunded if seats can be filled; a $5 non-refundable service fee will be applied. Trip costs include all Community Center and travel expenses.

Wednesday, January 15 National Hat Day Beanie, sombrero, top hat, cowboy hat, or fedora, anything goes! Dig out an old favorite hat, or get creative and make your own masterpiece! Wear it in for bingo and lunch, favorite hat will take home a prize.

Friday, January 17, 24, 31, Feb 7, 14, 21 Brain Fitness This program uses individual and group activities designed to stimulate a variety of your brain regions. The class is social, interactive, and fun! You can expect to be challenged with visual puzzles and games, and to participate in activities that use your short-term and long-term memory. The class is offered in partnership with MultiCare and is a part of their Celebrate Seniority program. There are 2 levels, Level 1 runs from 9-10:15 and Level 2 runs from 10:45 until noon. REGISTRATION REQUIRED.

Tuesday, January 21 Senior Trip: Seattle Antiques Market and Dukes Seattle Antiques Market is one of the largest collectibles and antiques dealers in Washington! This 6,000 sq. ft. store is filled with thousands of treasures from the past. Youll discover a wide selection of antique furniture for the home, nautical antiques, collectible vinyl, vintage typewriters, vintage cameras, mid-century modern home decor, antique office furniture, vintage toys, and much, much more! We will leave GMVCC at 9:30a.m., shop for a while, then head to Dukes Chowder House for lunch. Cost is $15, plus money for shopping and lunch.

Senior Fitness

Mon/Wed/Fri at 9:00a.m. Walking Group Meeting in the GMVCC lobby MWF at 9:00a.m., we walk on the Lake Wilderness Trail as a group, rain or shine. Everyone walks at his or her own pace; covering approx. 3 miles round trip. This is a drop-in activity; no need to call ahead. There is a $1 suggested donation to support on-going GMVCC Health and Wellness programs.

Mons and Weds., at 9:00a.m. Aging-Well Yoga Instructor will help you gently increase strength, flexibility, posture and balance. Everyone will be working at their own pace. 4-class punch card is $30; 8-class punch card is $50; 12-class punch card is $70; drop-in rate is $10. No reservations are necessary; pay in class. This class is held in The Den. Call us with any questions.

Mons., Weds. and Fris. at 10:30 Fall-Prevention Exercise The Fall StopMove Strong exercise program was designed specifically to improve balance and strength. It is a series of 3 different 12-minute sessions. This is free and no sign-up is necessary. Please note: no exercise on party days.

Socials and Games

Time and availability might vary because of holidays and parties. Suggested donation of $1 in the activity donation box.

Mons. Bingo at 11:00; Pinochle at 12:30; Ping Pong 12:30

Weds. Quilting & Sewing at 10:45 (2nd & 4th Weds.) in the Den; Bingo at 11:00, Pinochle and Mah Jong at 12:30

Fris. Bingo at 11:00, Painting at 1:00, Ping Pong 12:30, Pinochle 12:30

Fris. at 1:00 Painting

Calling all painters (all mediums) to come in to use our main hall to paint, socialize, and share ideas. Tables and space to spread out is available, however, there are no easels for use, and no instruction given.

Lunch Menus

Lunch served each Mon., Wed., Fri. at 12:00. For those age 60+ there is a suggested donation of $4. For all others, there is a $7 fee.

All menus are subject to availability of food items. Milk, coffee, and tea are available for all lunches.

Wed., Jan 8: Chicken Noodle Casserole, broccoli salad, tropical fruit, milk

Fri., Jan 10: Potato Soup with Sausage and Kale, green salad, breadstick, apple, milk

Mon., Jan 13: Salmon patties, rice pilaf, green beans, fruited jello, croissant, milk

Wed., Jan 15: Sloppy Joes, Normandy vegetables, coleslaw, pears

Health and Wellness

Routine Pedicure/Footcare Karens Foot Care is offered to seniors on the 2nd & 4th Friday of each month and the 4th Thurs. Cost is $32. Please call GMVCC to make an appointment as this popular service fills quickly.

Blood Pressure Checks are offered on the 1st and 3rd Fridays between 10:30 and 11:00. This service depends on availability of MV Firefighters.

Services

Community Center Shuttle Need a ride in? Our shuttle runs M/W/F between 9a.m. and 3p.m. and provides rides to GMVCC for programs and lunch. Shuttle rides are $1 each way within our transportation boundaries. Call 425-432-1272 for availability at least 24 hours in advance. $20 bus passes (good for 20 rides) are available.

Volunteer Transportation Need a ride to a medical appointment? Call Janet at 425-432-1272 at least one week in advance to arrange a free volunteer-provided ride. This Volunteer Program is now in great need of drivers. If you think you would like to help seniors get to medical appointments, please call the above number to become a volunteer.

Meals on Wheels (by application only). Applications must be obtained from and submitted to Sound Generations (call 206-448-5767 or mealsonwheels@soundgenerations.org and http://www.soundgenerations.org). A new, expanded menu is now available.

Free Pet Food In partnership with the Seattle Humane Society, the Greater Maple Valley Community Center offers free pet food for qualifying low-income seniors.

Medical Lending Closet Free walking aids & bathroom equipment are available from our lending closet free of charge(call for current items). We also welcome donations of these items!

Cell Phone Drop Off Drop off your old cell phones here to be distributed to US military as well as people in general disaster areas. This is part of the Phones for Soldiers Program. More information can be found at: http://www.cellphonesforsoldiers.com

Eye Glass Drop Off Drop off old prescription glasses here for the Lions Club to refurbish and redistribute to those who need them.

Computer Assistance Volunteer Curtis Patterson specializes in working with senior citizens and provides free, caring, patient, one-on-one computer assistance including repairs, upgrades, diagnostics, tutoring, virus/spyware cleaning, and more. PC and Android are his specialty, but Curtis is willing attempt to help with Apple products as well. Call us at 425-432-1272 to arrange and appointment. Age requirement is 50+.

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Maple Valley Senior News Updated 1-14-2020 - Voice of the Valley


Jan 14

7 Football Training Tips To Enhance Your Game – University Herald

When it comes to football, there are many ways to get ahead of the game. Whether it's increasing your bench weight or your oxygen absorption during practice, you can employ several different strategies to gain an edge during the game. Use these tips and conditioning exercises to enhance your play on the field, and increase your chances of moving on to the next level.

1. Nutrition Is Extremely Important

Nutrition is just as important as training when it comes to sports. Exercise alone will not counteract all the ill effects of an unhealthy diet. According to Elitefts, "what you eat directly relates to how you perform." Eating ahealthy and balanced dietis equally as important to your game as weight and endurance training. Make sure to eat lots of proteins, vegetables, and fruits. Limit junk food to once or twice a week while focusing on healthy fats and carbs.

2. Stick To The Basics

With all the information out there on the internet, it can be easy to get sidetracked by new, oddball exercises. Variety is great when it comes to an exercise routine, but adapting new exercises that aren't effective won't do you any favors.

When you first get started, focus on the basic exercises such as bench presses, deadlifts, cleans, and squats. Once you've mastered the basics, add in their variations to avoid getting bored. This can include box squats, clean pulls, snatch grip deadlifts, sumo deadlifts, inclines. The goal here is to use exercises that are proven to get results instead of one-off suggestions that may not help your performance.

3. Stay Consistent

No exercise routine will enhance your game if you don't stick to it. Although this is simple advice, it may be one of the hardest to adhere to. No matter how many curls or squats you do in one sitting, it won't help overall if you can't stay consistent.

Aside from just exercising regularly, changing up your routine every other week can do more harm than good as well.Tons of players have a habit of changing their workout routine every other week due to the latest article that comes out, contradicting the last one. While switching up exercises is a good idea, completely changing your whole workout philosophy too often will keep you from seeing results.

4. Train All Year

Just because it's not football season doesn't mean that you shouldn't train. In fact, if you want to be an all-star player, you'll need to train all year round. One way to make this easier is tojoin a football campwith year-round facilities in the offseason. This will keep your skills sharp. Since this is something that other players might be less likely to do, it's a great way to gain an edge on the competition.

5. Add Reps To Get Bigger

If you are looking to increase muscle mass, you'll need to eat right and add more reps to your workout. One of the best ways to do this is to mix low, heavy rep sets with your main exercises like squats, box front squats, or incline. Follow these with assistance exercises that are higher in rep count to increase your bulk. Some great assistance exercises include:

Rows

Chin-ups

One-arm row

Dumbbell bench

Curls

Dumbbell overhead press

Straight leg deadlifts

6. Time Your Sets

Another great way to increase muscle mass is totime your setsinstead of counting just the reps. Set a timer for somewhere between 90 seconds and two minutes. Once that timer starts going get in as many reps as you can while resting appropriately. Try to increase the number of reps you can complete during your timed set week over week. This will definitely put muscle on even the scrawniest of players.

7. Increase Speed by Increasing Strength

By strengthening the right muscles, you will end up increasing your speed. Use exercises that focus on your glutes, hamstrings, and quads. Along with this strategy, make sure to learn the proper running form. Speed-specific track programs can be great, but they won't help you unless you are also working out the right muscles. When it comes to football, the best thing you can do to increase your speed is to get stronger in the right areas.

Following these tips can help skyrocket your performance on the field. Make sure to give your body the proper nutrition and rest that it needs. Build an outline of an exercise program and stick to it to see results. Be consistent with your exercise and make sure to train even in the offseason. Add reps to your sets and considering timing them to increase muscle mass. Also, remember not to get caught up in trends. Stick with basic, proven exercises to see results. Adapt techniques that will improve your game and remember, it's just as important to improve your overall athleticism as it is your strength.

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7 Football Training Tips To Enhance Your Game - University Herald


Jan 14

Did U of M Just Find a Pill to Replace Exercise? – wkfr.com

A University of Michigan made an exciting discovery that may be a health game changer.

What if you could take a pill that would give you some of the same health benefits as cardio or muscle training? Sounds like a sales pitch of a scam right? The University of Michigan is testing a protein that may change everything according to the Michigan Health Lab website,

Michigan Medicine researchers studying a class of naturally occurring protein called Sestrin have found that it can mimic many of exercises effects in flies and mice. The findings could eventually help scientists combat muscle wasting due to aging and other causes.

Basically, they are running flies on little fly treadmills. They found that flies that were given high levels of Sestrin that did not exercise had abilities "above and beyond" the trained flies. So, what abilities are they talking about?

The beneficial effects of Sestrin include more than just improved endurance. Mice without Sestrin lacked the improved aerobic capacity, improved respiration and fat burning typically associated with exercise.

I'm not sure how exercising flies can be directly connected to exercising humans...but you have my attention.

It's worth noting that the goal here isn't to make us even lazier. There are many cases where people cannot exercise due to disease, illness or injury. This could help keep those people healthy and prevent muscle atrophy in theory.

No word yet, on when testing on humans will begin.

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Did U of M Just Find a Pill to Replace Exercise? - wkfr.com


Jan 14

Fire Explorers program helps young people learn the ropes of firefighting – ECM Publishers

Each Sunday evening starting this past fall, a group of young people has been gathering at the Waconia Fire Station to get a taste of what its like to be a firefighter/emergency responder.

The group is called the Waconia Fire Explorers. Explorers is one of the career-oriented programs offered by Learning for Life, a branch of the Boy Scouts of America.

The program introduces young people ages 1421 to major aspects of fire service, including real-life situations such as search and rescues, use of fire equipment, and emergency medical response, such as CPR and first aid.

Explorer participants also get a chance to observe professional firefighters in training, and once students have acquired enough of their own training, they can be involved in controlled burns and join on actual fire-related emergency calls under certain conditions.

High school junior Jacob Nelson says he likes the hands-on aspect of the Waconia Fire Explorers program. In the first year of the local program, he and the seven other participants have been introduced to almost every piece of equipment and device employed by firefighters.

They have donned protective clothing, handled hoses, used a thermal imaging device to search for hot spots and soared 100 feet into the air aboard a fire truck tower ladder. They also played a large-scale game of Jenga using the fire departments extrication spreader tool sometimes used in motor vehicle accidents.

In another exercise, the Waconia Explorers joined with the Southwest Carver County Fire Explorers on a search and rescue exercise in Norwood Young America, knocking through walls at a house slated for demolition. That post has been around for several years now.

Explorer programs, or posts, typically are sponsored and organized by a fire department in the area. The fire department provides some funding, materials, gear, a place to meet and train, and officers, or advisors. Waconia firefighter Wayne Michael is advisor for the Waconia Fire Explorers.

Michael appreciates the value of fire service and explains that the program provides considerable hands-on experience, a good stepping stone and a head start for young people who might be considering becoming a firefighter.

Nelson is one of those. He said he has been interested in fire service since he was a youngster and will probably pursue a career after graduation.

By the way, Jacob Nelson is no relation to Waconia Fire Chief Chris Nelson, although the local chief is thrilled to have Nelson and other young people at the station. He said he hopes the Explorers program can spark interest an interest in fire service among young people and maybe serve as a feeder program for firefighters. Waconia and almost every town around are in need of firefighters, Nelson notes.

Two other participants in the Waconia Fire Explorers are children of current firefighters.

Even if participants dont go on to become firefighters themselves, post leaders say Explorers teaches them some skills that could help them in everyday life, like first aid.

Any local youth interested in joining the Waconia Fire Explorers group can call Wayne Michael at 612-562-5315, or simply show up on a Sunday at 6 p.m. at the Waconia Fire Station.

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Fire Explorers program helps young people learn the ropes of firefighting - ECM Publishers


Jan 14

4 eating and exercise tips for better health in 2020 and beyond – East Bay Times

Its a new year, so you probably wont be too surprised when some of your friends, family or coworkers start talking about their resolutions for weight loss.

Diets and weight loss programs tend to gain traction in January and then lose steam in February and March. Weight-oriented goals may stem from old habits normalized by a culture that values thinness and quick fixes. Weight-loss goals, especially this time of year, can feel like an emotional roller coaster that we can never quite get off.

What if this year, in 2020, we made goals for better health with a plan fueled by the latest science? Instead of placing our determination for a successful New Year on the number on the scale, we can pour efforts into achievable lifestyle habits for a healthier body and mind. The year 2019 led to many interesting scientific revelations about nutrition that can be easily integrated into your life to improve your eating habits now.

Eat a Plant-Based Diet

The role of plant-based diets in protecting heart health was highlighted in numerous 2019 studies. Research published in theJournal of the American Heart Associationrevealed that those on a plant-based diet have a 32 percent reduced risk of cardiovascular disease-related death compared to those who are not. In addition, eating plant foods leads to a 25 percent lower risk of death from all causes.

Try This: Eat one plant-based meal every day.

Include More High-Fiber Foods

What if you could improve your health simply by consuming more fiber? This past year the World Health Organization investigated the role of fiber on health by looking at 185 studies and 58 clinical trials over 40 years and their results were published inThe Lancet. They found that consuming 25-29 grams of fiber daily lowers risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer and death. High-fiber foods increase satiety after eating and positively influence lipid and glucose levels.

Try This: Read the Nutrition Facts Food Label for fiber content to aim for 25-29 grams of fiber daily.

Eat Fewer Ultra-Processed Foods

Foods that are very highly processed, like candy and chips, lack nutritional value, but often are loaded with sugar, fat and sodium. Numerous studies this past year looked at just how harmful ultra-processed foods are for health. A study published in Cell Metabolismcompared an ultra-processed food diet with a non-processed food diet, which were calorie matched. Even though participants were all instructed to consume the same amount of calories, those eating ultra-processed foods gained more weight compared to those eating non-processed foods. It is likely the texture and sensory experience of ultra-processed foods that leads to faster eating, which may impact how the brain determines fullness.

Try This: Speak with a registered dietitian about a plan for nutritious foods you can swap in place of highly processed foods.

Exercise for Mental Health

While we know that exercise is good for physical health, it also appears to have a significant role in mental health. Research published in the journalDepression and Anxietyshowed that those who engaged in multiple hours of physical activity weekly were less likely to be diagnosed with a new episode of depression despite having a higher genetic risk for the condition. Specifically, for every 4 hours of light to strenuous exercise performed per week, participants experienced a 17 percent reduction in new occurrences of depression.

Try This: Include at least 35 minutes of light to strenuous exercise every day based on your abilities. Talk to your physician about starting a new exercise regimen.

LeeAnn Weintraub, a registered dietitian, provides nutrition counseling and consulting to individuals, families and businesses. She can be reached by email atRD@halfacup.com.

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4 eating and exercise tips for better health in 2020 and beyond - East Bay Times


Jan 14

Programs at the Westwood COA – News – Wicked Local Westwood

MondayJan13,2020at5:09PMJan13,2020at5:09PM

The Westwood Council on Aging, at the Patricia Carty-Larkin Senior Center, 60 Nahatan St., announced events for the week.

For information or lunch reservations: 781-329-8799; http://townhall.westwood.ma.us.

Friday, Jan. 17

8:30 a.m.: Manicures

9 a.m.: Wonder Workout

9 a.m.: Big Y

9 a.m.: Bridge

Noon: Lunch, potato pollack

Monday, Jan. 20

SENIOR CENTER CLOSED MLK HOLIDAY

Tuesday, Jan. 21

8 a.m.: Floor Yoga

9:30 a.m.: Chair Yoga

9 a.m.-Noon: BOH Nurse Hours

10 a.m.: Watercolors

Noon: Lunch, beef picadillo

1 p.m.: Watercolors

1 p.m.: Tai Chi

Wednesday, Jan. 22

9 a.m.: Wonder Workout

9 a.m.: SHINE

9 a.m.: Errands

9:30 a.m.: Current Conversations

10:30 a.m.: Chorus

11:15 a.m.: Meditation

Noon: Lunch, chicken stir fry

12:30 p.m.: Low Impact Exercise

1 p.m.: Knitting

Thursday, Jan. 23

8 a.m.: Floor Yoga

9:30 a.m.: Chair Yoga

11 a.m.: Pilates

Noon: Lunch, roast pork

12:30 p.m.: Mahjong

1 p.m.: Bingo

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Programs at the Westwood COA - News - Wicked Local Westwood


Jan 14

Charge your laptop, phone, and everything else with a single $15 all-in-one charger – BGR

Arent you sick and tired of carrying different chargers for your laptop, smartphone, tablet, eBook reader, smartwatch, and more? Wouldnt it be awesome if you could carry a single charger that works with all of them? Well now you can its called the Aukey 30W USB C Charger with Power Delivery and Dynamic Detect and it sells for $22 on Amazon. Thats a terrific price for such a versatile all-in-one charger, but today its on sale for even less. Clip the on-site coupon and use the promo code ECL56KRA at checkout, and youll only pay $15.39!

Heres more info from the product page:

Follow @BGRDeals on Twitter to keep up with the latest and greatest deals we find around the web. Prices subject to change without notice and any coupons mentioned above may be available in limited supply. BGR may receive a commission on orders placed through this article.

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Charge your laptop, phone, and everything else with a single $15 all-in-one charger - BGR


Jan 14

Explore the Mount at an open house in January – Times Herald-Record

High school students can get a taste of the college experience at Mount Saint Mary Colleges first open house of the year on Jan. 26 from 9:30 a.m.-1 p.m. on the campus, 330 Powell Avenue in Newburgh.

NEWBURGH High school students can get a taste of the college experience at Mount Saint Mary Colleges first open house of the year on Jan. 26 from 9:30 a.m.-1 p.m. on the campus, 330 Powell Avenue in Newburgh.

Call 1-888-YES-MSMC or email admissions@msmc.edu for more information. Register online at msmc.edu/rsvp

High school students may speak with academic advisors about their plans, while being wowed by the colleges magnificent views of the Hudson River. Advisors and counselors will help students regarding their application, transferring credits, and obtaining financial aid.

Students will also meet faculty and current students, tour labs, and discover internships and research opportunities.

Prospective students and their families can learn about undergraduate programs preparing students for careers in Nursing, Business, Education, Social Services, Communication/Media, Math, Information Technology, Science, Philosophy, Religion, and more.

The Mount will be offering several exciting new programs for incoming first-year students:

Cybersecurity: Offered as both an IT concentration and major, the Mounts Cybersecurity program provides theoretical and hands-on skills to identify and mitigate security vulnerabilities in software, operating systems, networks, and more. A major or concentration in Cybersecurity at the Mount can lead to careers in technology, security software, defense, government, teaching, e-commerce, banking, finance, business, and more.

Exercise Science: The Exercise Science major will immerse students in the workings of the body, its needs under physical and emotional stress, and how these factors affect life. Coursework will include training in exercise physiology, kinesiology, biomechanics, nutrition, and injury prevention. Graduates of the program will be primed for careers in health and wellness, such as nutrition, public health, health education, and fitness. They will also be ready to begin graduate studies in athletic training, physical or occupational therapy, and even MD or OD degree programs.

For more information or to register, visit msmc.edu

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Explore the Mount at an open house in January - Times Herald-Record


Jan 14

A Cause of and Solution to Extremism: A Case for Civil Military Operation (CMO) Capacity Building in African Partner Forces – smallwarsjournal

A Cause of and Solution to Extremism: A Case for Civil Military Operation (CMO) Capacity Building in African Partner Forces

James P. Micciche

Introduction

As the United States begins to transform its foreign policy and security strategy to adapt to what the 2017 National Security Strategy (NSS) refers to as a return to Great Power Competition (GPC)[i] one geographic region that has endured a substantial reduction in funding and troop commitments is Africa. While there are no great power competitors amongst the 53 countries that constitute United States Africa Commands (USAFRICOM) Area of Responsibility (AOR) multiple countries within the region are at the forefront of ongoing efforts that clearly fall within what Joint Doctrine Note 1-19 defines as the competition continuum[ii]. From increasing Russian military partnerships to strategic Chinese economic development projects, rival nations are seeking to advance their interests and increase their influence within Africa over that of the United States. By 2050 Africa will be the worlds largest market in terms of number of consumers as current demographic trends predict that 25% of the worlds population will reside in sub-Saharan Africa within three decades[iii], therefore making establishing equitable long-term relationships with key partners while concurrently fostering stability vital to both U.S. economic and security interests.

In addition to competition for influence between great powers, the continent of Africa remains plagued by the damage and chaos wrought by violent extremists across many of its diverse regions. Boko Haram and ISIS-West Africa persist in the regions around the Lake Chad Basin helping to create a humanitarian crisis that has led to 2.7 million displaced across the region[iv]. Al Shabaab continues to attack fledgling institutions of governance in Somalia, the second most fragile state in the world per the Fund for Peaces yearly index[v]. ISIS and other entities attempt to expand their influence in Northern Africa enabling unfettered flow of illegal migration towards our closest allies in Europe. In his 2018 address to Congress, General Thomas D. Waldhauser, then Commander USAFRICOM addressed these and other ongoing concerns:

U.S. Africa Command supports our African partners in building the capability and the capacity to develop local solutions to radicalization, destabilization, and persistent conflict. By making targeted investments and maintaining strong partnerships, we can set the basic security conditions needed for good governance and development to take root. Africa, our allies, the U.S., and the world stand to benefit from a secure, stable, and prosperous Africa. [vi]

General Waldhausers intent and vision for a secure and stable Africa is a construct that Civil Affairs (CA) has a unique and critical role in achieving, specifically through the creation and implementation of an AFRICOM wide Civil Military Operations (CMO) capacity-building program for partner forces. A CA-led CMO development program as outlined in this article has three primary outcomes: (1) The generation of security forces that can work by, with, and through civil populations at the tactical and operational level, accounting for civil considerations and mitigating second order effects often used by extremist organizations in influence and messaging campaigns. (2) Increasing the projection of partner nation governance within vulnerable populations through the promotion of an inter-ministerial approach and more pragmatic security elements. (3) Increased understanding of the complex human terrain throughout the various regions of Africa and the facilitation of transregional collaboration between USG and African Partners. Furthermore, a CA-led CMO program will directly enhance the Joint Forces ability to campaign through both cooperation and competition below levels of conflict throughout the continent of Africa supporting the framework established by both the Joint Concept for Integrated Campaign (JCIC) and the Competition Continuum and codified ass objective 3 of AFRICOM U.S. access and influence are ensured. To facilitate the maximum use of the limited amount of CA elements allocated to AFRICOM it is essential to create a named operation or program of record such as United States Southern Commands (USSOUTHCOM) Civil Affairs Engagement Program (CAEP) to enable long term success in any CMO development program.

Situation

In late 2017, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) published a landmark report titled Journey to Extremism: Drivers, Incentives, and the Tipping Point for Recruitment in which UNDP sought to answer a very complex question: What makes a person decide to join a violent extremist group? The comprehensive study interviewed 718 individuals from six African nations (Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, Niger, Somalia, and Sudan) in which extremism and terrorist activities are prevalent, including 573 respondents who were once or currently are members of extremist organizations in Africa to include Al-Shabaab, Boko Haram, and ISIS. Findings highlight that no single factor or event serves as the solitary catalyst for an individual to take up arms or provide logistical support to extremist movements; rather a set of factors increase the propensity of individuals or groups to be influenced by and ultimately join extremist movements and organizations. Many of the factors UNDP identified in making a population vulnerable to extremism are not new to Civil Affairs and SOF practitioners: under-governed regions far from central authority, ineffective or absent security forces, inadequate education, lack of employment opportunities, and poor economic conditions are some of the same drivers of instability that are uniform across all COCOMs.

Unique to Africa is the role that the very forces sent to combat extremists, insurgents, and criminals play in empowering the very organizations they seek to defeat. Seventy-one percent of all respondents stated that the tipping point, defined as the specific moment or factor that transitions an individual from being vulnerable to actively supporting a VEO, was government action. Government action includes the killing or arrest of family members or friends as well as destruction or damage to property by national or local security forces[vii]. To highlight how impactful government action was; no other tipping point was greater than 8% (regional developments). The 2009 extrajudicial killing of Boko Haram founder, Muhammed Yusuf by Nigerian Security forces illustrates how government action can set conditions for an extremist organization to flourish across an entire region. Following Yusufs death, Boko Haram prominently increased their support and numbers among the population of Northern Nigeria, concurrently increasing their operational tempo and cruelty of methods. Abubakar Shekaus ascension to leader of Boko Haram is attributed as the cause of increased Boko Haram violence, but it was the State Security Forces that provided him not only the position of power, but also the platform to recruit. US Army Civil Affairs is uniquely postured within the AFRICOM AOR to address this critical driver of instability through a programmatic CMO development and training program with African partners at both the tactical and institutional levels of partner militaries within both conventional and Special Operations Forces (SOF) components.

During the United States Army Africa (USARAF) 2017 Senior Leaders Conference then United States Army Africa (USARAF) Commanding General, MG Joseph Harrington charged his subordinate commanders with shaping African partner militaries to become forces that the populace runs to, not away from in times of peril. AFRICOM and its subordinate component commands such as USARAF frequently provide or organize bilateral and multilateral training through mil-to-mil exercises and Theater Security Cooperation (TSC) programs. AFRICOM programs address a myriad of Security Force Assistance (SFA) domains such as increasing combat survivability (Tactical Combat Casualty Care / Counter-IED), enhanced lethality (advanced infantry training), transnational interoperability and information sharing (Unified Focus and Flint Lock Command Post Exercises), disaster response planning (Exercise Joint Resolution Epic Guardian) and equipment donations. The fight against extremism, especially within the complex environment(s) of Africa cannot rely on lethality and combat effectiveness alone, and many times kinetic action is not the appropriate response. It is paramount to the long-term success of any capacity building program within the AFRICOM AOR that the lead component command institute an incorporated or concurrent CMO development program.

Incorrect utilization of recently acquired combat power can, and often has, increased the influence extremists organizations exert over populations. Overemployment of kinetic force enables the transition of key terrain and networks within the human domain away from the government and towards negative actors. One such example is the brutality and ferocity that had become associated with tactical village clearing operations conducted by the Nigerian Military en masse as recently 2015. The 2015 Amnesty International report titled Stars on Their Shoulders. Blood on Their Hands claims that between 2009-2015 Nigerian security forces haphazardly arrested 20,000 people, 7,000 of which died while in military internment facilities, where the NGO recorded countless accusations of torture and extrajudicial killings[viii]. Military overreach is not limited to tactical operations but also in operational decisions within contested areas. A March 2018 Foreign Affairs article titled Nigerias Troubling Counterinsurgency Strategy Against Boko Haram: How the Military and Militias Are Fueling Insecurity highlights recent restrictions implemented in northern Nigeria that are having dire second order effects in constraining economic prosperity and way of life:

Apart from their disastrous humanitarian consequences, Nigerias policies to starve the enemy allow local military units to integrate themselves and dominate local economic markets and activities. The military now prohibits growing tall crops (among which Boko Haram could hide) and controls fishing activities, travel on certain roads, and access to the markets, often collecting illegal tolls and rents. It demands that merchants buy fish only from fishermen and traders it certifies, justifying such control of access to the economy by the need to deprive Boko Haram of resources.[ix]

Draconian responses, if true, illustrate the tipping points for 71% of extremists in Africa, empowering the very enemy they seek to eradicate. CMO development programs at both the tactical and operational levels are instrumental in enhancing the relationship between the populace and military to prevent such actions and their second order adverse effects. Additionally, institutional CMO capacity facilitates securing key terrain within the human domain to defeat extremists that often coerce and operate within the civil populace, and concurrently negate ongoing VEO influence and recruitment campaigns.

Tipping points are defined as specific moment or factor that transitions an individual from being vulnerable to actively supporting a VEO. PHOTO SOURCE UNDP Journey to Extremism

Programatics and CMO Development

Any CMO development program in Africa must employ a bifurcated approach focusing on both tactical training and institutional development. This dual approach would include two distinct but related activities: (1) the development and codification of CMO principles within partner force doctrine and staff planning processes. (2) Training and development of tactical level CMO focused units or individuals through an established and theater uniformed Program of Instruction (POI) with region/country specific segments. Institutional development and the creation of doctrine will need to occur at the Ministry of Defense (MINDEF) or national ground forces command level; this will require a minimum of a field grade CA Officer to serve as a CMO advisor within the appropriate staff section for a year or more. The CMO Advisor would work with partner force leadership to codify CMO principles into doctrine, ensure the incorporation of civil considerations and variables into staff planning processes down to the BN level, foster inter-ministerial coordination and collaboration, and either a dedicated CMO force structure (in line with a NATO CIMIC company) or CMO elements to be attached to tactical units. Vital to the success of the CMO advisor position is an established framework that permits flexibility to meet the needs or constraints of a given nation. CMO Advisors can also shape and promote regional partnership and information sharing between adjacent partner force militaries through fellow advisors and inter-organizational associations.

The second facet of the proposed CMO development concept is tactical CMO training through the utilization of Civil Affairs Teams to instruct partner forces through mil-to-mil exercises or TSC and USN/USMC/USAF equivalent events. A CA Team is uniquely qualified to create and present a comprehensive program of instruction based on their inherent knowledge of the human domain, theater specific cultural understanding, and language capabilities. Any Program of Instruction (POI) must not rely on PowerPoint, instead utilizing practical exercises of skills learned, and include a comprehensive capstone event or Field Training Exercise (FTX). Tactical level CMO training does not need be a standalone construct and is easily incorporated into existing TSC or mil-to-mil events. During Unified Focus 2018, Civil Affairs Teams from Bravo Company, 83rd CA BN and the 764th Ordinance Company created a hybrid FTX incorporating CMO, C-IED, and Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) instruction, ending with a comprehensive daylong scenario based-capstone. Furthermore, CMO training is not exclusive to Counter Terrorist (CT) or Counter Violent Extremism (CVE) efforts in AFRICOM. Counter Illicit Trafficking (CIT), Security Force Assistance (SFA), Counter Narcotics (CN), MEDRETE, and Border Security Initiative (BSI) mission sets all can easily include CMO training aspects due to their constant interface with the human domain. Furthermore, the CA Team medic can enhance combat survivability of partner force elements receiving training through the instruction of TCCC. Tactical-level instruction must include, but is not limited to the following topics:

The final and critical phase to the enduring success of a CMO development in the AFRICOM AOR is creating a long-term plan for institutional sustainability. Train the trainer programs creating a dedicated CMO instruction force and third-party certifications by organizations such as NATO CIMIC Center of Excellence (CoE) or USJFKSWSC are examples of establishing a stable and credible system. A national or regional CMO CoE should also be another long-term objective for African CMO development that could serve as both a center of instruction and a mechanism for regional collaboration, information sharing and innovation.

Three Cameroonian Sappers conduct a Key Leader Engagement (KLE) with a roleplayer during the Capstone event for Exercise Unified Focus 2018 (UF18) Field Training Exercise (FTX) in Douala, Cameroon. The Sappers were required to engage and build rapport with a simulated aid worker as a means to enhance their understanding of threats and conditions in a small village they were assigned to patrol Photo taken by author

Governance Facilitation and Inter-Ministerial Collaboration

Another key finding of the UNDP Journey to Extremism report was that over 75% of individuals that voluntarily joined extremist organizations placed no trust in politicians or in the state security apparatus[x]. In many regions of Africa in which VEO activity is prevalent, military security forces are one of the few, if only mechanisms of the state present. This lone presence often makes a small patrolling unit the de facto face of an entire nation to large subsections of the population; this places the utmost importance on the relationships that small units build with the populace they encounter. This role as envoy of the state places a premium on ensuring the development of CMO capacity for units and commanders. CMO alone is not the answer as the need for combat effectiveness and increased lethality still play an important role as 79% of survey respondents felt that Security forces could not provide every day safety[xi].

In addition to directly projecting governance through presence at the tactical level, the parallel efforts of the CMO advisor have the unique ability to foster inter-ministerial collaboration within the upper echelons of a partner nations military hierarchy. In many partner nations, the military is often the lead and only element combating extremism in remote locations and often discredits or distrusts NGOs and IGOs within operational areas. The US and other western nations have promoted and implemented various forms of the whole of government solution/approach to both foreign policy and CVE programs. It is through this approach that a CMO program can directly enhance the ability of a partner nation to build, project, and provide governance to vulnerable populations susceptible to extremist recruitment simultaneously securing and control key human terrain. This critical line of effort will require a CMO Advisor to synchronize efforts with various members of a given U.S. Embassy Country Team as well as interagency staff sections and the Civil Affairs Planning Detachment (CAPD) within USAFRICOM headquarters. CMO Advisors must ensure their efforts and programs align with existing or potential economic, development, health, and social initiatives of an Embassys Integrated Country Strategy (ICS) facilitating inter-ministerial coordination and development through DOS, USAID, and other interagency partners. Fostering the above-mentioned relationship(s) both enhance partner governments ability protect vulnerable populations while simultaneously projecting governance but also shapes partner militaries to work with their civilian counterparts. These efforts directly support the 2018 National Defense Strategys (NDS) objective of Enabling U.S. interagency counterparts to advance U.S. influence and interests and strategic approach:

Integrate with U.S. interagency. Effectively expanding the competitive space requires combined actions with the U.S. interagency to employ all dimensions of national power. We will assist the efforts of the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, Energy, Homeland Security, Commerce, USAID, as well as the Intelligence Community, law enforcement, and others to identify and build partnerships to address areas of economic, technological, and informational vulnerabilities [xii]

This partnership is not limited to working with US Embassies as several of our closest allies have mature and productive relationships in various nations throughout Africa. Whether it is working with the British in Nigeria, the French in Gabon, or the Brazilians in Mozambique, working with our allies not only enhances our African partners, but also strengthens key strategic alliances and relationships.

A final effect of developing inter-ministerial engagement and relationships through US and allied networks is the ability to counter the growing influence of strategic competitors that undermine development and often promote corrupt practices as outlined in the 2017 National Security Strategy[xiii]. Chinas One Belt-One Road initiative focuses many of its maritime and infrastructure development programs in East Africa, creating a dedicated group partners to support a China-centered global trading network. The $54 Billion dollar growth of Chinese construction contractors gross annual revenue across Africa from 2000 to 2015 emphasizes increasing economic and financial influence[xiv]. In addition to financial, economic, and transportation influence, China is starting to expand militarily in the continent beyond peacekeeping operations. To protect the aforementioned investments China increased presence in the Horn of Africa region with the opening of the Peoples Liberation Armys (PLA) first overseas base in Djibouti. Russia on the other hand has long existing security ties to many countries that once looked to the former Soviet Union for ideological and financial support during the Cold War and as recent as 2019 Russian President Vladimir Putin hosted African leaders in Moscow as part of his nations efforts to rekindle relationships. Despite the fall of the USSR, nearly a quarter century ago, Moscow still remains a major arms supplier for many African countries and maintains cooperative defense training agreements[xv], such as Mozambique where the Wagner Group is now leading efforts against militants in Northern provinces

U.S. Army Civil Affairs along with the UK British Military Advisory Team (BMATT) participate in a two-week Civil Military Cooperation Staff Officer Course for Nigerian Officers in 2018 as part of ongoing partnership and institutional CMO development for the Nigerian Armed Force (NAF). PHOTO SOURCE U.S. Army Africa

Civil Information Management Through a Partner Force

An October 2017 article from ARMY magazine authored by the USARAF Chief of Staff outlines what the Army Service Component Command (ASCC) identifies its greater role in Africa to be:

The primary role of U.S. Army Africa (USARAF), an Army Service Component Command, is to set the theater for joint or multinational operations during a crisis or emergency and enable long-term strategic success. Setting the theater is a continuous process that requires enduring relationships with African partners, constant information sharing within the interagency and our allies, and implementation of plans with long-term objectives that ensure tactical actions (security cooperation activities, exercises and engagements) build toward strategic effects.[xvi]

USARAF has placed such an emphasis on Set the Theater that the concept has served as the Commands sixth Line of Effort (LOE) since 2015; and now a codified part of the USAFRICOM campaign plan. A key component to setting the theater as stated above is constant information sharing with the interagency and allies, which mirrors one of the core fundamentals of Civil Information Management (CIM) as outlined by ATP 3-57.50: CIM is a collaborative exchange. It builds rapport between partners, the value of which is at least as great as the information and analysis it produces.[xvii] Africa is the second largest continent in terms of both landmass and population it would be negligent to consider the minimal CA assets at the disposal of USAFRICOM could conduct Civil Reconnaissance, Civil Engagement, and Human Terrain Analysis (HTA) across the entirety of the 53 countries within AFRICOM. Even if one were to limit the list to prioritized countries and utilize Active, Reserve, Army, and USMC elements the number would remain significantly short. This does not even take into account the diverse language and cultural understanding needed to understand a given human terrain.

To overcome this challenge it is vital forward CA elements to work by, with, and through African and inter-organizational partners as they develop their civil information collection plans and build networks of positive actors. Our African military partners have regular interaction with vulnerable populations within areas of VEO influence or operations, areas usually restricted to CA Teams for various reasons. Furthermore, African partners are far more knowledgeable and versed in various cultural nuisances, customs, practices, language, and traditions that make up the fabric of a given society. CA Elements conducting CMO capacity building missions need build collaborative information sharing relationships with their partner forces at all levels of warfare. CA Teams conducting tactical training need to instruct teams on what information is pertinent and shared with higher commands to enhance understanding of the human domain and civil factors/variables. It then becomes the role of the CMO Advisor to shape institutional processes within a partner military on how to incorporate gathered tactical data into mission planning and operational analysis. This instruction includes increasing the capacity of BN Staffs (and above) to integrate civil data and account for the impact of operations on civil-consideration during their planning processes. In a regional capacity, CMO advisors can promote civil information sharing between multinational task forces such as the Sahel G5 or African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) that are actively combating extremists as a mechanism to aid in controlling and winning vulnerable human terrain. As information sharing is a bidirectional relationship CMO advisors must be able to provide USG reports and operational updates that enhance a staffs understanding of factors of the human domain or at a minimum assist in command level analysis of tactical data.

NGO and IGO entities play a very significant role in Africa, specifically in addressing ongoing or developing humanitarian disasters, often caused or exploited by extremist organizations. NGOs and IGOs maintain regular interaction with vulnerable populations in a role far different from military forces, providing a different perspective of the human domain than the one afforded to a patrolling security forces element. Due to limited resources and a necessity to demonstrate to donors the value of their contributions NGO/IGOs focus heavily on quantitatively driven Measure of Performance (MoP) and Measures of Effectiveness (MoE) for both the efficacy of their programs and assessments of where best to implement aid and programing. NGO/IGO willingness to participate in collaborative information sharing relationships with security forces varies based on the guidelines of an individual organization or the level at which they operate, but by having a dedicated individual or element to engage with NGO/IGOs will only improve the relationship between African Security Forces and aid organizations by building continuity and rapport. Despite possible restrictions from some groups, working with our partners to develop information sharing relationships with NGO/IGOs within an operational area enhances the overall understanding of the human domain far more than relying only on data acquired by military and government sources. CA elements propensity to produce a large amount of their products and data at the unclassified level only further increases the ability to share with NGO/IGO partners when compared to other military elements who often operate at the classified level and above. This also presents a unique opportunity to build inter-ministerial relationships, as many NGO/IGOs are more apt to work with ministries other than the military allowing a CMO advisor to promote a whole of government approach within African partner governments. CMO Advisors can also utilize existing relationships between US and Allied embassies to improve relationships with NGO/IGOs and better enhance the civil component to the common operating picture.

Supporting USARAF LOE 6 and enhancing the civil component(s) of AFRICOMs COP is not limited to working through African military partners. CA elements receive training in civil reconnaissance and assessments and can tailor pre-mission training to focus on regional specific conditions and objectives. These skills combined with expertise in the human domain allow forward CA teams to conduct focused assessments on key infrastructure, terrain (physical and human), and individuals that directly support USARAFs role as the continents contingency command as well as support efforts to counter subversive influence of strategic competitors that attempt to advance interests through population centric warfare and influence operations. Additionally, CA elements can conduct assessments and civil reconnaissance in conjunction with a partner nation force undergoing CMO training. Joint reconnaissance not only serves as a practical exercise for partner forces but also greatly enhances the quality of information gathered. The combination of unsurpassed socio-cultural understanding possessed by a partner force and technical and analytical techniques of a CA element provide the most comprehensive understanding of the human domain of a given region.

While the US Army is normally the lead element on Civil Affairs operations within the DOD, USMC CA elements have the potential to play a more active role in certain geographic region to include Northern Africa due to its connection with Mediterranean and Adriatic seas. Due to the joint nature of CAO/CMO on the continent of Africa there needs to be an established joint-entity at the Geographic Combatant Command (GCC) level to conduct fusion, synchronization, and dissemination of civil data. In early 2018 USAFRICOM began to establish their joint-CIM cell to fulfill this role, with an end state of including personnel from all services and components (active, reserve, GPF, and SOF) that have a stake in mapping the human domain in Africa. The future AFRICOM Joint-CIM Cell will also provide access to both partner force liaison officers and various interagency partners that reside at AFRICOM HQ in Stuttgart, enhancing information sharing and creating a more comprehensive and accurate COP. In addition to enhancing the COP for the commander CIM efforts either by CA elements or through partner forces, support various staff sections and units supporting AFRICOM operations. From logistics to intelligence, CIM not only provides data and information to enhance understanding but also provides a platform to answer requests for information about the human domain and civil society needed for different sections to execute their functions. Not just limited to Africa, CIM facilitates transregional and cross GCC analysis of the human domain enabling strategic leaders to understand the seams between the various GCCs surrounding AFRICOM.

FIG 1 - A Notional Structure For Coordination from ATP 5-0.6 Network Engagement that highlights the importance of multiple sources of civil data such as partner nations and NGOs in defining and understanding a dynamic operating environment PHOTO SOURCE ATP 5-0.6

The Way Ahead A Little Help From Our Friends

USARAF currently overseas two CMO development missions in Africa Active Component Teams currently deploy to Nigeria and Gabon to work directly with partner nation forces in building CMO capacity at the tactical level supporting both CVE and CIT efforts respectively. Additionally, a CMO Advisor was based in Abuja, Nigeria working with the Nigeria ministry of defense in building CMO doctrine, forces, and training within their military structure and collaborate directly with the team conducting CMO engagements. CA Teams and elements continue to participate in mil-to-mil exercises across the continent providing training or mentoring as part of both FTXs and CPXs, reaching a diverse training audience and familiarizing them with the importance of CMO. Demand signals from both partner nations and U.S. Country teams highlight a growing demand for CMO focused training for African Partner forces. To maintain this momentum the AFRICOM CAP-D will need to carefully manage and allocate limited CA resources to where they can have the most impact on developing CMO capacity.

Between 91st CA BN and B/83 there are only 30 CA Teams dedicated to the AFRICOM AOR, of which only half can be deployed at a given time to maintain mandated dwell cycles, in comparison there are 53 countries within AFRICOM. The majority of 91st CA BNs assets are assigned to Special Operations Command Africa (SOCAF), whose mission sets are often unable to directly support partner force training due to constraints and authorities. There are four reserve BNs dedicated to AFRICOM but these elements have greater limitations on deployment authorities than their active counterparts. Limitations on non-TCS deployment length, lack of organic language capability, no team level medical assets, and longer mandated dwell cycles often make deploying RC elements more complicated than AC counterparts. AFRICOM CAP-D and subordinate service combatant commands must regularly prioritize which countries or regions they wish to utilize available CA teams to build partner force CMO capacity as well as best incorporate reserves and USMC CA elements where able while still managing other mission requirements. Due to these limitations in force power, long-term success hinges on a joint-multicompo solution. For example, utilizing reserve elements to serve as CMO instructors in mil-to-mil exercises, which are often shorter than the 29-day cap of Annual Training (AT) for Reserve Component (RC) elements and have extensive logistical support infrastructure in place alleviating the lack of organic medical and language assets. Using Reserve CA elements in this capacity would all active CA elements to be deployed for long periods of time (6-9 months) in a continuous regional role focusing efforts supporting capacity building in multiple countries that have similar cultures and problem sets.

The GCC creating a named operation or funded the program of record at/through the Joint Staff level focusing on regional CMO development or attaching CMO development as part of an existing named operation alleviates many of the logistical, funding, and authority concerns addressed. SOUTHCOMs CAEP provides a framework for AFRICOM to emulate. CAEP has enabled General Purpose Force (GPF) and Reserve CA forces to be the primary CAO effort within Central America providing the proper funding and authorities for regional CA engagement. A long-term solution would be to design a CAEP-like construct known as African CMO Engagement Strategy (ACES) that follows the tenants described in this paper. ACES would create four regionally aligned programs that focused on the three geographically centered areas of emphasis outlined in 2019 AFRICOM Campaign Plan and an additional program for emerging partnership outside the areas of focus. The creation of ACES Northern Africa/Sahel, ACES-Lake Chad Basin (LCB)/West Africa, ACES-East Africa, and ACES- Central and Southern Africa would allow CA elements to best focus to the regional issues associated with those areas and incorporate themselves into existing campaign plans and working groups. Alternatively, planners at the GCC level can ensure that any efforts to support the Strengthening Partner Networks and Enhancing Partner Capacity objectives of the 2019 AFRICOM Campaign plan explicitly include the development of civ-mil capacity.

Throughout Operation Atlantic Resolve (OAR) US Army and USMC CA teams have worked alongside CIMIC Teams from countless NATO allies in Eastern Europe. NATO CIMIC is far different from Civil Affairs but at its core retains nearly all of the same CMO principles common to US Joint Doctrine. In September 2017, the NATO Strategic Direction South (NSD-S) Hub became operational creating a new area of focus in Africa for NATO. The hubs mission statement as described by the initial press release highlights its goal of creating collaboration and

The NSD-S Hubis designed to focus on a variety of current and potential issues to include destabilization, potential terrorism, radicalization, migration and environmental concerns. A role of the new center is also to coordinate and work alongside agencies outside of the NATO and national military structures as they concentrate on southern regions to include the Middle East, North Africa and Sahel, sub-Saharan Africa and adjacent areas, waters and airspace[xviii].

Many of our NATO allies not only maintain a presence in Africa but also do so in some of the most vital areas of interest for US Policy. The Italians have CIMIC force in the Horn of Africa, the French are actively engaged in Mali, Chad, and other Sahel G5 countries, and the 83rd CA BNs Team in Nigeria is attached to a British Military Advisory and Training Team (BMATT). Coordination and collaboration with our NATO allies who often have deep cultural ties to formal colonial holdings in Africa would enhance a CMO development program for partner military forces. AFRICOM at a minimum should look to establish a collaborative information sharing relationship between their future joint-CIM Cell and NDS-S Civilian Military Engagement Coordination Section (CECS) and Knowledge Management and Engagement (KM&E) sections to enhance overall understanding of the human domain and identify critical vulnerabilities within populations. The NSD-S Hub also maintains a staff section titled Engagement Coordination Section (ECS) tasked with the coordination and synchronization of NATOs and willing Allies activities in the South. Activities will include liaison/interaction within agreed partnership and cooperative security activities, key leadership engagements (KLE), Defense Capacity Building initiatives and training and education activities in the South at all levels in order to maximize security enhancing effects and increase understanding.[xix] Engagements with NDS-S ECS could potentially lead to the creation of a NATO supported CMO development program for Africa allowing planners to integrate the capabilities of NATO CIMIC elements into the overall plan filling positions and deployments that cant be supported by the limited number of available US CA Teams. Prospective NATO support also brings the 28 other NATO members diplomatic and development sections already present in many African capitals into the mix further supporting whole of government promotion efforts and focused governance training.

As CA forces begin to instruct CMO to African partner forces the curriculum must be semi standardized in order to ensure both unity of effort and interoperability. AFRICOM, SOCAF, USARAF, and Marine Forces Africa (MARFORAF) must ensure that they coordinate with each other as well as centers of instruction such as USAJFKSWCS to create a standard set of POIs that achieves the desired effect of an African partner force that is able to win the human domain. As the home to both the proponent and doctrine production for Army CA forces USAJFKSWC is best suited to work with all GCCCs to create a POI that supports CMO development as well as enables joint interoperability with USMC and CIMIC counterparts. Despite the standard nature of establishing a theater POI there should be variances to allow for regional dynamics, available training time, or various levels of existing CMO knowledge. Established POIs cannot be static and must be regularly reviewed and updated to address their effectiveness, changes in the operating environment, and new enemy tactics. As CMO capacity within African forces develop military leadership with CMO training must be part of the POI updates as eventually these programs will become theirs, this concept also promotes potential African regional CMO centers of excellence. In addition to the development of POI, leadership at the operational and strategic level must create a series of Measures of Performance (MOP) and Measures of Effectiveness (MOE) to gauge the impacts of the CMO program, ensuring desired effects are occurring. In addition to establishing MOEs and MOPs leadership well need to establish episodic review periods that include all stakeholders involved in the development program. MOPs/MOEs will need to utilize survey data to evaluate the perception of security forces with vulnerable populations, leadership will need to allocate funds to coordinate third party survey to occur concurrently with program reviews as well as begin collaboration with the Armys Operational Research/Systems Branch (ORSA) or other similar joint DoD functions located at the GCC staff.

For centuries, many Africans have experienced heavy-handed and violent tactics from their former colonial masters, extremist organizations, and their own government leading to a great mistrust of security forces and the government they represent. To change that sentiment will require not only a professional military trained in CMO but also a substantial increase in government efficacy, inclusion, economic prospects and a marked reduction in corruption; all of which are not the role of the DoD. CA forces play an important role in promoting stability through building African security forces that can work through the civil populace but this is only one component of greater concert of efforts, highlighting the need to work with willing partners. An African proverb states, If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together. In closing it is important for leadership and policy makers to realize that building institutional CMO capacity within African partners will not happen overnight, nor will the reception of a professional force by the populace, this paradigm shift will take time and will be different in each unique region of the continent. While this is a daunting challenge CAs unique skill set and existing presence throughout Africa place them in position to address a critical vulnerability of regional stability. Despite this prime position as part of the solution to developing professional African security forces, CA elements cannot succeed alone in this endeavor and will fail if they attempt to.

A Gabonese Eco-Guard (Park Ranger) briefs a Civil Affairs Team Leader as part of a comprehensive Counter Illicit Trafficking (CIT) Program that included CMO principles. The Eco-Guards are responsible for patrolling and policing Gabons natural parks, which constitute over 10% of the entire country, they are often the only element of the government present in these remote regions. PHOTO SORUCE DIVIDS

End Notes

[i] Trump, Donald J., National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Executive Office of The President Washington DC Washington United States, 2017

[ii] Joint Chiefs of Staff, Competition Continuum (JDN 1-19), Department of Defense Washington DC, 2019

[iii] Suzuki, Emi. Worlds Population Will Continue to Grow and Will Reach Nearly 10 Billion by 2050 World Bank Blogs. 08 July 2019. http://blogs.worldbank.org/opendata/worlds-population-will-continue-grow-and-will-reach-nearly-10-billion-2050

[iv] UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Lake Chad Basin (as of 19 November 2017) . NY: UN OCHA, 2017

[v] The Fund For Peace. Fragile States Index 2017: Global Data. 2017. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/data/

[vi] Waldhauser, Thomas. United States Africa Command Posture Statement. Washington DC: DOD, 2018.

[vii] United Nations Development Programme. Journey To Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Inventivies, and the Tipping Point for Recruitment. New York: United Nations Development Program, 2017.

[viii] Amnesty International Ltd. Stars on Their Shoulders. Blood on Their Hands. War Crimes Comminted By The Nigerian Military. London: Amnesty International Ltd, 2015

[ix] Felbab-Brown, Vanda. "Nigeria's Troubling Counterinsurgency Strategy Against Boko Haram." Foreign Affairs, March 30, 2018

[x] United Nations Development Programme. Journey To Extremism in Africa: Drivers, Inventivies, and the Tipping Point for Recruitment

[xii] Mattis, Jim.Summary of the 2018 national defense strategy of the United States of America. Department of Defense Washington United States, 2018

[xiii] Trump, Donald J., National Security Strategy of the United States of America

[xiv] Eom, Janet. "China's "Belt and Road" opens up new buisness in Africa - for both the US and China." the Washington Post. July 24, 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/07/24/chinas-belt-and-road-opens-up-new-business-in-africa-for-both-the-u-s-and-china/?utm_term=.c13c050517f5.

[xv] Steinberg, Eugene. "Putin's Russia and Africa." Council on Foreign Relations. August 13, 2015. https://www.cfr.org/blog/putins-russia-and-africa.

[xvi] Kirk IV, Clint, and Hernandez Armando. "Access to Africa: Setting the Theater for Long-Term Strategic Success." Army, October 18, 2017.

[xvii] Department of the Army. Army Technical Publication No. 3-57.50: Civil Information Management. Washington DC: Headquarters Department of the Army, 2013.

[xviii] JFC Naples Public Affairs Officer. "NATO Strategic Direction South Hub officially opens." Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. Sep 5, 2017. https://shape.nato.int/news-archive/2017/nato-strategic-direction-south-hub-officially-opens.

[xix] NSDS Hub Naples. Organization: Engagement Coordination Section (ESC). 2018. https://www.thesouthernhub.org/about-us/who-are-we/necs.aspx.

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A Cause of and Solution to Extremism: A Case for Civil Military Operation (CMO) Capacity Building in African Partner Forces - smallwarsjournal


Jan 14

Things to do in Sudbury, Jan. 14 to Jan. 20 – The Sudbury Star

Jan. 14

Nominations: Do you know a volunteer who should be recognized for their contributions to our community? The City of Greater Sudbury is now accepting nominations for the annual civic awards, presented to individuals and/or groups for outstanding service, voluntary contributions, personal efforts and exemplary community development. Nomination forms are available online at greatersudbury.ca/civicawards or at any citizen service centre. The deadline to submit a nomination is Feb. 14 at 4:30 p.m. For more information about the civic awards, call 705-674-4455 ext. 2446 or email leisure.services@greatersudbury.ca.

Kindergarten registration: Rainbow District School Board schools in Sudbury, Espanola and Manitoulin will host information nights for Kindergarten registrations. All parents/guardians and children are invited to attend. Information Nights will take place from 5:30-6:30 p.m. Jan. 14 for the English Program and Jan. 16 for the French Immersion Program. Schools offering English and French Immersion will host one information night on Jan. 16. Visit rainbowschools.ca for a list of schools and programs offered or call your area Rainbow Board school. If your child is starting school for the very first time, please consider completing the online registration form before you attend the information night. This will give you an opportunity to enjoy more time engaging in school readiness activities with your child. The online registration form is available at https://www.rainbowschools.ca/register-now/registration/.

Ageless grace series: Join the Alzheimer Society to learn 21 simple tools for lifelong comfort and ease.This program consists of 21 simple exercise tools designed for all ages and abilities.These exercises, based on everyday movements that are natural and organic, focus on the healthy longevity of the body and mind. Sessions will be held 10 a.m. Jan. 7, 14, 21 and 28 at the Greater Sudbury Public Librarys main branch on MacKenzie Street. Register online or contact the branch for more details.

Italian classes: The Societa Caruso Culture and Education Committee is offering basic Italian classes for beginners 6:30-8:30 p.m. at the Caruso Club. The 12 classes will run Jan. 14-April 14. The cost is $125 for members and $175 for non-members. To register, contact the Societa Caruso office at 705-675-1357.

Art: Artists Ron Langin and Heather Topp present New Work, an insight into deterioration and regeneration, at One Sky, 125 Durham St. The exhibition runs until Jan. 31. The gallery is open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Monday and Saturday, and until 5 p.m. Tuesday to Friday. Sundays are by appointment only.

Jan. 15

Sign up: On Feb. 22, The Samaritan Centre will be hosting its ninth annual Coldest Night of the Year event. This is an annual winter fundraising walk to benefit the work of The Samaritan Centre and other charities just like it across the country. The Samaritan Centre is recruiting teams for its biggest fundraiser of the year, which aims to raise funds and increase awareness of issues surrounding poverty and homelessness in Sudbury. The Samaritan Centre encourages walkers to form teams and raise money through pledges at cnoy.org. Consider leading or joining a team for Coldest Night of the Year, or become a corporate sponsor at cnoy.org/register.

Art: Artists Ron Langin and Heather Topp present New Work, an insight into deterioration and regeneration, at One Sky, 125 Durham St. The exhibition runs until Jan. 31. The gallery is open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Monday and Saturday, and until 5 p.m. Tuesday to Friday. Sundays are by appointment only.

Art: An exhibition featuring Neli Nenkovas acrylic works, entitled Jazz: Tears and Smiles is running at the law offices of Moutsatsos Laakso Alexander LLP. A Sudbury-based visual artist with more than 20 years of professional experience in Europe and Canada, Nenkova is a recipient of numerous art and design awards, including a 2019 Sudbury Design Society Award. Nenkova is known for her mural Togetherness, which is on the S curve along The Kingsway. Clients of MLA Law and art aficionados are invited to see Nenkovas exhibition until Jan. 30.

Jan. 16

Open house: Meet Mary Lou Hussak, the United Way Centraide North East Ontarios new executive director, at an open house 3-5 p.m. at the UWCNEO offices in Unit 201, 957 Cambrian Heights Dr.

Kindergarten registration: Rainbow District School Board schools in Sudbury, Espanola and Manitoulin will host information nights for Kindergarten registrations. All parents/guardians and children are invited to attend. Information Nights will take place from 5:30-6:30 p.m. Jan. 14 for the English Program and Jan. 16 for the French Immersion Program. Schools offering English and French Immersion will host one information night on Jan. 16. Visit rainbowschools.ca for a list of schools and programs offered or call your area Rainbow Board school. If your child is starting school for the very first time, please consider completing the online registration form before you attend the information night. This will give you an opportunity to enjoy more time engaging in school readiness activities with your child. The online registration form is available at https://www.rainbowschools.ca/register-now/registration/.

Art: Artists Ron Langin and Heather Topp present New Work, an insight into deterioration and regeneration, at One Sky, 125 Durham St. The exhibition runs until Jan. 31. The gallery is open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Monday and Saturday, and until 5 p.m. Tuesday to Friday. Sundays are by appointment only.

Art: An exhibition featuring Neli Nenkovas acrylic works, entitled Jazz: Tears and Smiles is running at the law offices of Moutsatsos Laakso Alexander LLP. A Sudbury-based visual artist with more than 20 years of professional experience in Europe and Canada, Nenkova is a recipient of numerous art and design awards, including a 2019 Sudbury Design Society Award. Nenkova is known for her mural Togetherness, which is on the S curve along The Kingsway. Clients of MLA Law and art aficionados are invited to see Nenkovas exhibition until Jan. 30.

Music: Juno Award-winning bluesman Harrison Kennedy will kick off 2020 for the Motley Kitchens Dinner and a Show series on Jan. 16, with a show that is already sold out.The Motley Kitchen presents the Dinner and a Show series in association with Northern Lights Festival Boreal.

Jan. 17

Housing: Sweetfern Co-housing in Sudbury is excited to announce its co-housing 101 workshop on Jan. 17 from 6:30-8:30 p.m. at the Parkside Older Adult Centre, 140 Durham St. During this workshop we will explore what co-housing looks like in Canada and the benefits of living in community. Tickets are $25. Learn more at universe.com/cohousing101sudbury. On Jan. 18, Is Co-housing Right for You? will be a hands-on learning, discovery and reflection workshop, taking place from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. at Horizon Partners, 40 Larch St. Lunch and snacks will be served. Childcare is provided. Tickets cost $70, but there is a discount if you attend Friday and in pairs. Learn more at universe.com/iscohousingrightforyousudbury.

Fish fry: There will be a pickerel fish fry 4-7 p.m. at the Royal Canadian Legion Lockerby Branch 564, 2200 Long Lake Rd.

Luncheon: A luncheon will be held 11 a.m.-1:30 p.m. at the ParkSide Centre on Durham Street. Entertainment by Country Classic. Admission is $8.

Business: Hard-Line, an international leader in mine automation, remote-control technology and mine production optimization, is partnering with NORCAT to host the first Hard-Line Machine Learning Hackathon (HLMLH). The special 42-hour event takes place Jan. 17-19 at NORCAT. To learn more, visit hardlinehacks.com.

Art: Artists Ron Langin and Heather Topp present New Work, an insight into deterioration and regeneration, at One Sky, 125 Durham St. The exhibition runs until Jan. 31. The gallery is open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Monday and Saturday, and until 5 p.m. Tuesday to Friday. Sundays are by appointment only.

Art: An exhibition featuring Neli Nenkovas acrylic works, entitled Jazz: Tears and Smiles is running at the law offices of Moutsatsos Laakso Alexander LLP. A Sudbury-based visual artist with more than 20 years of professional experience in Europe and Canada, Nenkova is a recipient of numerous art and design awards, including a 2019 Sudbury Design Society Award. Nenkova is known for her mural Togetherness, which is on the S curve along The Kingsway. Clients of MLA Law and art aficionados are invited to see Nenkovas exhibition until Jan. 30.

Jan. 18

Italian classes: Italian classes for children will be held 9:30-11:30 a.m. Saturdays starting Oct. 19 through to May 9 at the Caruso Club on Haig Street. The cost is $75 for Caruso Club members and $125 for non-members. To register, contact the Societa Caruso office at 705-675-1357.

Housing: Sweetfern Co-housing is putting on Is Co-housing Right for You?, a hands-on learning, discovery and reflection workshop, taking place from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. at Horizon Partners, 40 Larch St. Lunch and snacks will be served. Childcare is provided. Tickets cost $70, but there is a discount if you attend Friday and in pairs. Learn more at universe.com/iscohousingrightforyousudbury.

Business: Hard-Line, an international leader in mine automation, remote-control technology and mine production optimization, is partnering with NORCAT to host the first Hard-Line Machine Learning Hackathon (HLMLH). The special 42-hour event takes place Jan. 17-19 at NORCAT. To learn more, visit hardlinehacks.com.

Art: An exhibition featuring Neli Nenkovas acrylic works, entitled Jazz: Tears and Smiles is running at the law offices of Moutsatsos Laakso Alexander LLP. A Sudbury-based visual artist with more than 20 years of professional experience in Europe and Canada, Nenkova is a recipient of numerous art and design awards, including a 2019 Sudbury Design Society Award. Nenkova is known for her mural Togetherness, which is on the S curve along The Kingsway. Clients of MLA Law and art aficionados are invited to see Nenkovas exhibition until Jan. 30.

Film: Saturday, Jan. 18, 8:15 p.m., Battle Royale, Sudbury Indie Cinema. For listings of films at Sudbury Indie Cinema, visit http://www.SudburyIndieCinema.com or drop into 162 Mackenzie St. (laneway entrance) anytime after the first screening of the day to pick up a paper schedule.

Music: John Closs will launch Horizons on Jan. 18 with a performance at The Lounge, located in a corner of the Quality Inn. He will be joined by Michael Kelly and Doug Dandeno, as well as Ranger and Walli, the Angels Local #23 members who contributed vocals to the recording.

Closs will perform the songs from Horizons along with other original material. The launch goes from 4 to 6 p.m. A $10 cover charge will include snacks and a copy of Horizons. The EP is also available through streaming services such as Spotify and iTunes.

Jan. 19

Skiing: The Capreol Cross Country Ski Club is hosting its July in January strawberry shortcake day 12:30-3:30 p.m. at the Capreol Cross Country Ski Club building. Admission is $4. Proceeds to the Capreol Bread and Roses Food Bank.

Health: On Sunday, Jan. 19 at 11 a.m., participants will be strapping on their snowshoes for the Trek for Cancer Snowshoe Fun Run & Fat Bike Race at Kivi Park, a great family-friendly event with courses of varying lengths and difficulty. Then at 12:30 p.m., the park will start its first fat bike race. The Snowshoe Trek will have 1km, 3 km, 5 km and 7 km distances. Registration fees are $5 for kids and $35 for adults. Fat Bike courses are 5 km and 10 km and cost $5 for kids and $35 for adults. Adults can do both events for $50. Registration starts at 10 a.m. Snowshoe rentals will also be available for $5 courtesy of event sponsor Adventure 365. Online registration is now available at http://www.ncfsudbury.com. Registration can also be done in person on Jan. 19 or Feb. 2, and over the phone by calling 705-523-HOPE (4673).

Business: Hard-Line, an international leader in mine automation, remote-control technology and mine production optimization, is partnering with NORCAT to host the first Hard-Line Machine Learning Hackathon (HLMLH). The special 42-hour event takes place Jan. 17-19 at NORCAT. To learn more, visit hardlinehacks.com.

Art: Artists Ron Langin and Heather Topp present New Work, an insight into deterioration and regeneration, at One Sky, 125 Durham St. The exhibition runs until Jan. 31. The gallery is open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Monday and Saturday, and until 5 p.m. Tuesday to Friday. Sundays are by appointment only.

Art: An exhibition featuring Neli Nenkovas acrylic works, entitled Jazz: Tears and Smiles is running at the law offices of Moutsatsos Laakso Alexander LLP. A Sudbury-based visual artist with more than 20 years of professional experience in Europe and Canada, Nenkova is a recipient of numerous art and design awards, including a 2019 Sudbury Design Society Award. Nenkova is known for her mural Togetherness, which is on the S curve along The Kingsway. Clients of MLA Law and art aficionados are invited to see Nenkovas exhibition until Jan. 30.

Jan. 20

Nominations: Do you know a volunteer who should be recognized for their contributions to our community? The City of Greater Sudbury is now accepting nominations for the annual civic awards, presented to individuals and/or groups for outstanding service, voluntary contributions, personal efforts and exemplary community development. Nomination forms are available online at greatersudbury.ca/civicawards or at any citizen service centre. The deadline to submit a nomination is Feb. 14 at 4:30 p.m. For more information about the civic awards, call 705-674-4455 ext. 2446 or email leisure.services@greatersudbury.ca.

Genealogy: The Sudbury Branch of Ontario Ancestors (OGS) will hold its next meeting 7 p.m. at the ParkSide Centre on Durham Street. Parking is free under the YMCA after 6 p.m. or on the street. Guests are always welcome! For more information, send an email to http://www.sudburyogs.com or visit http://www.facebook.com/groups/sudburyogs/.

Ageless grace series: Join the Alzheimer Society to learn 21 simple tools for lifelong comfort and ease. This program consists of 21 simple exercise tools designed for all ages and abilities. These exercises, based on everyday movements that are natural and organic, focus on the healthy longevity of the body and mind. Sessions will be held 10 a.m. Jan. 6, 13, 20 and 27 at the Greater Sudbury Public Librarys Valley East branch. Register online or contact the branch for more details.

Sign up: On Feb. 22, The Samaritan Centre will be hosting its ninth annual Coldest Night of the Year event. This is an annual winter fundraising walk to benefit the work of The Samaritan Centre and other charities just like it across the country. The Samaritan Centre is recruiting teams for its biggest fundraiser of the year, which aims to raise funds and increase awareness of issues surrounding poverty and homelessness in Sudbury. The Samaritan Centre encourages walkers to form teams and raise money through pledges at cnoy.org. Consider leading or joining a team for Coldest Night of the Year, or become a corporate sponsor at cnoy.org/register.

Meditation: Learn a basic meditation technique designed for the beginner as well as the seasoned meditator. The sessions will be led by seasoned meditators to bring calmness and relaxation to the body, mind and spirit. Sessions will be held 10:30 a.m. Mondays starting Jan. 13 through to June 29, with the exception of Feb. 17, April 13 and May 18. Registration is not required. This is a free program offered to the community.

Art: An exhibition featuring Neli Nenkovas acrylic works, entitled Jazz: Tears and Smiles is running at the law offices of Moutsatsos Laakso Alexander LLP. A Sudbury-based visual artist with more than 20 years of professional experience in Europe and Canada, Nenkova is a recipient of numerous art and design awards, including a 2019 Sudbury Design Society Award. Nenkova is known for her mural Togetherness, which is on the S curve along The Kingsway. Clients of MLA Law and art aficionados are invited to see Nenkovas exhibition until Jan. 30.

Art: Artists Ron Langin and Heather Topp present New Work, an insight into deterioration and regeneration, at One Sky, 125 Durham St. The exhibition runs until Jan. 31. The gallery is open from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Monday and Saturday, and until 5 p.m. Tuesday to Friday. Sundays are by appointment only.

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Things to do in Sudbury, Jan. 14 to Jan. 20 - The Sudbury Star



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