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Dec 28

Biochemistry, Dihydrotestosterone – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf

Introduction

The application of the knowledgeon dihydrotestosterone-related processes spans from the prenatal development of organs to the aging-related complications in males. A clinician can single-handedly tackle the issues that occur out throughout the age spectrum. This hormone finds its utility as an essential hormone in males until puberty, after which it is considered an etiology for certain diseases. Thedualfunction of this hormone places it in the basic science and applied field of medicine. This article aims to outline thebasic biochemistry of the hormone, its physiological functions at different stages of development, and its role in certain pathological conditions.

Androgens are endogenous steroid hormones. They consist of the hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the most potent hormone among the androgens and is considered a pure androgen as it cannot convert into estrogen. It is formed primarily in peripheral tissues of the body, where it exerts its effects. Testosterone converts to DHT by the action of the 5 alpha-reductase enzyme at these target tissues.[1]This isolated synthesis at a specific target tissue makes DHT primarily a paracrine hormone.[2] Asit is produced mainly in the liver, only small amounts are present in the systemic circulation.[3][4]It plays a vital role in the sexual development of males. During embryonic life, it is involved primarily in the sexual differentiation of organs. Through adolescence and adult life, DHT promotes prostate growth, sebaceous gland activity, male pattern baldness, and body, facial and pubic hair growth. This hormone, however, does not seem to play any significant role in normal female physiology. The mutations leading to dramatic losses of DHT in females only have minor effects on their normal physiology. The various functions of DHT are highlighted in the respective pathologies discussed in this article.

Aswith any other disease, a deficiency or an excess of the DHT hormone leads to specific pathologies. These pathologies require identification and treatment for the adequate development and functioning of the genital organs, specifically in males. The hormone deficiency requires special attention as it affects the prenatal sexual differentiation of a fetus, which sets forth a cascade of maldevelopment issues that are unmasked only during puberty.

Cholesterol is the precursor molecule for DHT synthesis, which passes through a series of reactions to form testosterone. Testosterone is then reduced by the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase at the target tissues to form DHT. This reduction step involves the use of NADPH to remove a double bond in the testosterone molecule. There are three isoenzymes of 5-alpha-reductase: types 1, 2, and 3. 5-alpha-reductase type 2 is the most prevalent and the most biologically active isoenzyme.[1]This enzyme is present primarily at the target tissues where DHT exerts its actions, allowing the conversion of testosterone to DHT to occur only at these specific sites.[1]

DHT is significantly more potent than the other androgens; this is due to the high affinity of DHT to the androgen receptor, its slow dissociation, and a long half-life. Compared to testosterone, DHT has approximately double the binding affinity to the androgen receptor and a dissociation rate about five times slower.[1]The enzyme 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which is present in the DHT target tissues and the liver, is responsible for the metabolism of DHT. The metabolism yields inactive metabolites, which are excreted in the urine.[3]

DHT plays a critical function in the sexual development of males, beginning early in prenatal life. The role of DHT differs as males progress through the different stages of development. It has various impacts on their physiology during childhood, puberty, and even throughout adult life.

Prenatal

During sexual development, various embryological structures develop under the influence of a variety of genes and hormones. A specific and unique environment of hormones results in male or female differentiation of structures. In males, testosterone, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), and DHT act in concert to inhibit female differentiation and promote the development of the male phenotype. DHT is essential for the formation of the male external genitalia. The testicular Leydig cells produce testosterone under the influence of placental human chorionic gonadotropin by around day 60 of prenatal development. The luteinizing hormone (LH) from the fetal pituitary takes over testosterone production by roughly week 16. The peripheral 5-alpha-reductase type 2 converts circulating fetal testosterone to DHT, which is responsible for proper male differentiation of the urogenital sinus, the genital tubercle, urogenital fold, and labio-scrotal folds. This activity leads to the formation of the penis, scrotum, and prostate. DHT, along with insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), helps stimulate gubernacular growth required for testicular descent. The absence of DHT may lead to ambiguous male external genitalia and undescended testis. Sex steroids accumulate from testicular production of testosterone in the male fetus and placental production of estrogen in both sexes, causing negative feedback on fetal pituitary, which helps control gonadotropin levels in the womb.

Childhood

After birth, the loss of placental estrogen removes negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which results in a transient increase in its activity in both sexes for the first few months of life. In males, this promotes a rise in testosterone levels and, therefore, DHT. The negative feedback on the HPG axis recovers by six months of age and the levels of sex hormones remain low until adrenarche.

Adrenarche typically occurs around six years of age in both sexes. The adrenal gland develops a new layer, the zona reticularis. This layer of the adrenal gland produces androgens, including testosterone, which increases systemic testosterone, leading to the development of sebaceous and apocrine glands, contributing to the development of minor acne and body odor. Testosterone production continues to increase as the zona reticularis continues to mature. There is enough peripheral conversion of testosterone into DHT by age 10 to result in pubic hair development. These events of adrenarche are distinct from puberty though they often coincide.

Puberty

An increase in the activity of the HPG axis characterizes the onset of puberty. Hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) increases, stimulating pituitary LH secretion, which increases testosterone production from the testes. The increase in systemic testosterone is associated with a significant conversion to DHT at its target tissues. This DHT promotes further growth and maturation of the penis and scrotum. DHT is also the primary androgen responsible for facial hair, body hair, pubic hair, and prostate growth. The circulating level of DHT in the blood is only 10% of the circulating level of testosterone. However, the DHT level can be as much as ten times greater than testosterone due to its isolated production in peripheral tissues.[2]

Adult

DHT does not play a significant role in the normal physiology of adults. The most notable effects are prostate enlargement and male pattern hair loss as they age.[5]

The effects of DHT are mediated through the intracellular androgen receptor.It passes through the cell membrane and binds to the androgen receptor in the cytoplasm of the cell. This interaction initiates a cascade leading to the transport of the ligand-androgen receptor complex to the nucleus, where it acts as a transcription factor to alter gene expression.[1]

DHT levels are useful in the diagnosis of 5-alpha-reductase deficiency and male-pattern baldness. The elevated testosterone-to-DHT ratio is a diagnostic of 5-alpha-reductase deficiency. The test is done during early infancy or puberty when the HPG axis is active. The axis becomes stimulated with the administration of hCG in the period between infancy and puberty. The serum DHT level does not directly correlate with the production in peripheral tissues. Its level increases to near-normal following puberty due to the activity of functional 5-alpha-reductase type 1 enzymes. A definitive diagnosis requires genetic testing to identify the aberration. The utility of DHT levels in diagnosing male-pattern alopecia is controversial, with no statistical significance or correlation of DHT levels with the progression of baldness.[6]

The variations in dihydrotestosterone levels are associated with various pathological conditions. These conditions usually affect people in different stages of life.

5-alpha-reductase Deficiency

The 5-alpha-reductase enzyme is involved in the production of DHT. The enzyme deficiencies are an autosomal recessive condition, typically arising due to loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding 5-alpha-reductase type 2.[7]Males born with a 5-alpha-reductase deficiency have underdeveloped genitalia, undescended functional testes, and a small or absent prostate. The development of the testes and the internal organs of sexual differentiation are unaltered. The presentation is variable depending on the enzyme level. In severe cases, the infants have external genitalia that appears typical for a female, and hence, are raised as one. They have a small clitoris-like penis, an unfused scrotum appearing as labia, and a short, blind-ending vagina. DHT levels are about 30% of their normal values. However, testosterone and AMH are produced normally, maintaining the mesonephric duct and inhibiting the paramesonephric duct, respectively. The testes continue to develop normally, but they fail to descend due to the lack of DHT. At the onset of puberty, the patients have a rapid increase in testosterone production from the testicles leading to the development of many secondary sexual characteristics. Their voice deepens, testes may descend, muscle mass increases, and the penis enlarges. Although DHT is involved in some of these processes at puberty, testosterone levels are sufficiently elevated to induce these changes without its influence, though they remain undervirilized in other ways. Facial hair growth is greatly diminished, and pubic hair grows in a typical female pattern. The prostate does not develop normally. The patients ultimately develop male gender identity and a sexual preference for females. These individuals can become fertile with surgery to correct the male ductal system. Female development is largely unimpacted by a congenital 5-alpha-reductase deficiency. Normal female development is not dependent on significant DHT activity. The low DHT levels may lead to reduced body hair growth and a mild decrease in pubic hair.

Androgen Deficiency

Testosterone is the primary hormone used in androgen-deficiency states like male hypogonadism, androgen deficiency of severe illness, androgen deficiency of aging, and microphallus in infancy. DHT has also been proposed as a treatment for androgen deficiency as it is a pure androgen and does not convert to estrogen. A potential advantage of DHT over testosterone is the reported and seemingly paradoxically muted effects of DHT on prostate growth. The decreased effect of DHT on the prostate gland of humans may be due to the decrease in intraprostatic estradiol levels.[8]

5-alpha-reductase Inhibitors

5-alpha-reductase inhibitors are useful in the treatment of conditions that have excessive DHT activity. The conditions include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, androgenic alopecia (male pattern hair loss), and hirsutism. These drugs work by inhibiting the 5-alpha-reductase enzymes, thereby reducing DHT production in tissues.[9]The most common drugs are finasteride and dutasteride. Finasteride inhibits only 5-alpha-reductase type 2, while dutasteride inhibits both type 1 and type 2 isoforms of the enzyme. Generally, the drugs are well tolerated, though they may diminish libido and sexual function.[9]

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

The prostate has a significant 5-alpha-reductase type 2 activity, producing large amounts of the potent DHT. This local DHT stimulates normal activity but also commonly induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the prostate. More than 50% of men over the age of 50 have some degree of BPH.[10]The increase in prostate growth is likely due to increased local production of DHT or increased activity of its receptor.[10]The patients may experience symptoms such as difficulty urinating and sexual dysfunction due to increased prostate growth.

The treatment of BPH mainly involves the administration of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists. But in some patients, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride and dutasteride, are indicated. These drugs are effective in reducing the size of the prostate and relieving symptoms associated with BPH.[9]

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer also characteristically demonstrates an increase in the activity of DHT. There is an upregulation in all three isoforms of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme. The mutations in genes result in uncontrolled proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis, which are related to pathways involving DHT.[11]The mutations in the androgen receptor also have implications in many cases of prostate cancer.

The 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors: finasteride and dutasteride are effective in treating and decreasing the risk of prostate cancer.[11]Though several clinical trials have demonstrated an overall decrease in prostate cancer incidence with these drugs, patients undergoing these therapies have increased rates of higher-grade cancers.[11]

Male Androgenic Alopecia (MAA)

Male androgenic alopecia is commonly known as male pattern hair loss. It is a form of hair loss occurring commonly on the top and frontal region of the scalp that recedes progressively. Increased DHT activity is responsible, amongst other factors, in the pathophysiology of androgenic alopecia.[6]Men with androgenic alopecia are genetically predisposed to higher 5-alpha-reductase enzyme levels and androgen receptor activity at the hair follicles.[12]Similarly, patients with enzyme deficiency are less likely to be prone to male androgenic alopecia.[12]

The oral 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride, can effectively slow or even reverse this hair loss pattern. In two large randomized controlled trials, approximately 99% of participants showed either a decrease in or reversal of hair loss.[13]The other first-line therapy for treating MAA is topical minoxidil, an arterial vasodilator.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

DHT has a negligible role in regulating normal female physiology. However, there are implications in the pathophysiology of PCOS. It is known to cause an increase in body weight, body fat, serum cholesterol, and adipocyte hypertrophy in experimental mice.[14]Surprisingly, the administration of prenatal DHT in experimental female mice does not induce penile formation.[15]

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Biochemistry, Dihydrotestosterone - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf

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Dec 28

Weight loss: From Cabbage to Pumpkin soup, try these 3 healthy soup recipes to lose weight – Zoom TV

Weight loss: From Cabbage to Pumpkin soup, try these 3 healthy soup recipes to lose weight  Zoom TV

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Weight loss: From Cabbage to Pumpkin soup, try these 3 healthy soup recipes to lose weight - Zoom TV

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Dec 28

Christmas cake for weight loss: Lose weight with this delicious and healthy almond and raspberry cake recipe – Zoom TV

Christmas cake for weight loss: Lose weight with this delicious and healthy almond and raspberry cake recipe  Zoom TV

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Christmas cake for weight loss: Lose weight with this delicious and healthy almond and raspberry cake recipe - Zoom TV

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Dec 20

Fad Diets: Why They Don’t Work, Sustainable Changes, and More – Healthline

These days, you cant walk down the grocery store aisle without seeing foods labeled Paleo, Keto, Whole30, gluten-free the list goes on and on. But what exactly are fad diets, and why should you care (or not care!) about them?

Consumers get bombarded with messaging about trends in nutrition on social media, in commercials, and in books, and much of the time, the advice is conflicting.

One day, eggs are great to eat. The next day, youre told to avoid them. Red wine has health benefits, but drinking too much is bad for you. Coconut oil is a miracle food, but its also really high in saturated fat, which can increase your LDL (bad) cholesterol.

Fad diets are diets that are trendy in the short term, even though theyre often not based on scientific research or evidence. That hasnt stopped the industry from taking off. In 2020 alone, the U.S. weight-loss industry was valued at $71 billion.

Fad diets often encourage deprivation and the demonization of foods, which may lead to nutrient deficiencies and disordered eating habits. They also focus on quick results and almost always on weight loss.

There isnt quality clinical evidence to back up the safety or efficacy of most fad diets.

Same thing for juice cleanse diets that supposedly detox the body. Your body already has a detoxification system: your liver and kidneys.

Even well-studied diets have been co-opted by the weight-loss industry and sold to people as quick fixes.

The ketogenic or keto diet, for instance, is an effective alternative treatment option for people with epilepsy who dont respond to traditional antiseizure medications or arent good candidates for surgery.

The diet also has some potential benefits like improving heart health, but it comes with several potential side effects. In the short term, you may experience whats known as the keto flu, which can cause temporary symptoms such as:

If you stick to the diet in the long term, your risk for developing the following may increase:

And the diet may not be suitable for people with certain health conditions like type 1 diabetes.

Another trendy food lifestyle is the gluten-free diet. Even though a gluten-free diet is necessary for some people, most dont need to eliminate gluten from their diet to be healthy.

A 2019 double-blinded randomized controlled trial the gold standard for research showed that gluten doesnt induce gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy people.

Like any other diet, its important to be well-rounded and consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods. And for some people, skipping gluten-containing products without guidance from a registered dietitian may actually be harmful.

You can better your health without focusing on weight loss. Plenty of lifestyle changes and habits can improve health markers like blood pressure and heart health walking, cooking more at home, getting quality sleep, reducing stress levels, for example.

However, fad diets are money makers, so companies make promises to bring in the big bucks. People are often duped into buying the latest weight-loss product or book only to spend even more money trying the next fad.

Instead of throwing your money away on supplements, books, and products that dont work, invest in your health by making small, sustainable changes.

Heres why fad diets probably wont do much for your health in the long term.

A calorie deficit promotes weight loss. But depriving yourself of the foods you enjoy to cut calories is likely to backfire.

And while fad diets may help you lose weight in the short term, theyre hard to stick to in the long run because of their restrictive nature.

Its also important to understand that bodyweight is just one piece of the larger puzzle that makes up a healthy person. Emerging research also suggests that weight may not have as big an impact on health as experts once believed.

If youre concerned about being healthy, a recent study suggests that physical activity may be more important than weight loss.

Of course, your diet and body weight can impact health markers like blood pressure and cholesterol, but making weight loss the end-all-be-all goal might not be the best strategy.

And relying on a quick fix like a fad diet might cause more harm than good.

Certain restrictive diets may increase the risk of developing eating disorder tendencies in people of all sizes.

And while a quick-fix diet might improve health markers in the short term, unless youre changing your habits for the long haul, those improvements, like better blood sugar control, may not be long-lasting.

Moreover, restriction can lead to cravings. Researchers are still trying to understand food cravings, but completely cutting out chocolate, potato chips, or ice cream can lead you to want those foods more than ever. Deprivation isnt a viable long-term solution because its not sustainable.

The restriction mindset can lead to binging and further restriction an unhealthy cycle that can cause weight-cycling, which is associated with a higher risk of disease and mortality.

Theres also a potential association between restrictive dieting and the development of eating disorders.

Removing your favorite foods also takes away a lot of pleasure in eating. Its possible to enjoy the foods you love and still reach your health goals.

One of the principal tenets of Intuitive Eating, for example, is gentle nutrition, the concept that you can eat healthfully while honoring your taste buds.

Often, certain foods or macronutrients become the target of fad diets. But if youre required to cut out an entire food group, the diet probably wont last. You may also be at higher risk for nutrient deficiencies.

Cutting out foods and food groups, or significantly reducing caloric intake, can make it much harder to get the nutrients your body needs.

For example, people following a strict vegan diet are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency because the nutrient is found primarily in animal foods.

And if you eat a very low carb diet, like the keto diet, you may not be getting enough fiber or other key vitamins and minerals, which can lead to unpleasant side effects like constipation and muscle cramps.

Your diet doesnt need to involve an all-or-nothing approach. Some foods are more nutritious than others, but all foods can be a part of a healthy diet. We live in a world of delicious options, after all.

Of course, too much of a tasty thing may negatively impact your health. Large quantities of refined carbs, for instance, can cause blood sugar spikes that may eventually lead to diabetes. They may also contribute to the development of heart disease.

Carbs arent the enemy, though. You can reduce your refined carbs and sugar intake without going to the extreme. Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes contain plenty of nutrients, including fiber, which is essential for gut health.

Diets can also negatively impact your mental health.

Fad diets, in particular, are associated with an increased risk of disordered eating and eating disorders due to their restrictive nature and negative impact on body image.

Theres also the mental toll of restriction to consider. Constantly striving to eat perfectly can cause unnecessary stress, which may, in turn, affect your overall health.

Are you looking to improve your overall health? Heres what to try instead of that popular fad diet thats all over your social media feeds.

Eat consistently throughout the day to help maintain optimal blood sugar levels, prevent indigestion, and curb uncomfortable bloating.

Aim for your meals to include lean protein, carbs high in fiber, and healthy fat. Not only will this help you eat a variety of nutrient-rich foods, but itll also stabilize your blood sugar and promote a healthy gut microbiota.

Eat more fruits and veggies! Aim for 45 servings daily. Whats a serving? One cup of leafy greens, 1/2 cup of cooked veggies, a piece of fruit about the size of a tennis ball, or about 1 cup of berries.

If that sounds like a lot, start slow and add a serving to one meal or snack. Remember that canned, frozen, and dried produce count too, but try to opt for ones with no or little added sugar and salt.

The American Heart Association recommends less than 25 grams for women daily and less than 36 grams for men, but its a good idea to keep added sugar intake as low as possible for optimal health.

Youll find added sugar in sweet foods, like cookies and ice cream, but its also in many other foods like bread, crackers, and yogurt. Added sugar shows up on food labels under various names: honey, agave, invert sugar, sucrose, and fructose. Try to choose lower sugar options when you can.

Read more about added sugar.

Complete deprivation doesnt work. If youre worried about sugar intake, having some dessert every night may help curb intense sweet cravings.

Restrictive diets tell you never to have dessert, leading to cravings and binging. Because you tell yourself youll never eat cookies again, eating one cookie can turn into eating a whole box.

Allowing yourself to enjoy the foods you love without the guilt whether thats chocolate, ice cream, or cookies can absolutely be part of a healthy diet.

You dont need to start doing high intensity workouts at 5 a.m. to improve your health.

Getting in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity each week can significantly reduce your risk of heart disease and stroke. Thats just over 21 minutes a day and can include any activity that gets your heart rate up, including brisk walking and household chores.

Regular exercise is also good for your bones and can help improve your sleep quality. Moving your body can also have a positive impact on your mental health.

If youre feeling super confused about how to incorporate healthy habits and feel overwhelmed by diet culture nonsense, consider seeking out a registered dietitian to help you break down health advice and sustainably achieve your goals.

Some professionals like Healthy at Every Size (HAES) or anti-diet dietitians even embrace an anti-diet culture philosophy.

A fad diet might help you achieve your goals in the short term, but cutting out major food groups and your favorite dessert isnt sustainable. Making smart, healthy choices without focusing on weight loss and relying on quick fixes is possible.

Need help parsing the contradictory health advice out there? Talk with a qualified expert like a registered dietitian.

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Fad Diets: Why They Don't Work, Sustainable Changes, and More - Healthline

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Dec 20

Do Diets Really Just Make You Fatter? – Healthline

Dieting is a multibillion-dollar global industry.

However, theres no evidence people are becoming slimmer as a result.

In fact, the opposite seems to be true. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide.

About 13% of the worlds adult population has obesity, and this number increases to 35% in the United States (1, 2).

Interestingly, theres some evidence that weight loss diets dont work in the long term and may actually lead to weight gain.

As the obesity epidemic continues to grow, many people turn to calorie-restricted diets in an attempt to lose weight.

However, people with obesity arent the only ones dieting. Losing weight is a priority for many people who either have less weight or are slightly overweight, particularly women.

Many researchers believe this is related to having a poor body image, which is made worse by constant media exposure to slim models, celebrities, and athletes (3, 4).

The desire to be thinner can begin as early as grade school. In one study, more than 50% of girls ages 68 with less weight said that their ideal weight was lower than their actual weight (5).

Girls beliefs about dieting and weight are often learned from their mothers.

In one study, 90% of mothers reported they had dieted recently. Study results showed 5-year-old daughters of dieting mothers were twice as likely to already have thoughts about dieting, compared with daughters of non-dieting mothers (6).

The desire to be thin is very common in women and can begin as early as 5 years old. Early awareness of dieting is often due to a mothers dieting behavior.

Losing weight is big business worldwide.

In 2015, it was estimated that weight loss programs, products, and other therapies generated more than $150 billion in profits in the United States and Europe combined (7).

The global weight loss market is predicted to reach $246 billion by 2022 (8).

Not surprisingly, weight loss programs can be quite expensive for someone who wants to lose more than a few pounds.

One study found that the average cost to lose 11 pounds (5 kg) ranged from $755 for the Weight Watchers program to $2,730 for the medication orlistat (9).

Whats more, most people go on many diets during their lifetime.

When these multiple attempts are taken into consideration, some people end up spending thousands of dollars pursuing weight loss, often without long-term success.

The diet industry generates billions of dollars every year and is expected to continue to grow in response to peoples desire to lose weight.

Unfortunately, weight loss diets have a disappointing track record.

In one study, 3 years after participants concluded a weight loss program, only 12% had kept off at least 75% of the weight theyd lost, while 40% had gained back more weight than they had originally lost (10).

Another study found that 5 years after a group of women lost weight during a 6-month weight loss program, they weighed 7.9 pounds (3.6 kg) more than their starting weight on average (11).

Yet, another study found that only 19% of people were able to maintain a 10% weight loss for 5 years (12).

It also appears that weight regain occurs regardless of the type of diet used for weight loss, although some diets are linked to less regain than others.

For instance, in a study comparing three diets, people who followed a diet high in monounsaturated fat regained less weight than those who followed a low fat or control diet (13).

A group of researchers who reviewed 14 weight loss studies pointed out that in many cases, regain may be higher than reported because follow-up rates are very low and weights are often self-reported by phone or mail (14).

Research shows that the majority of people will gain back most of the weight they lose while dieting and will even end up weighing more than before.

Although a small percentage of people manage to lose weight and keep it off, most people regain all or a portion of the weight they lost, and some gain back even more.

Studies suggest that rather than achieving weight loss, most people who frequently diet end up gaining weight in the long term.

A 2013 review found that in 15 out of 20 studies of people without obesity, recent dieting behavior predicted weight gain over time (15).

One factor that contributes to regain in people with less weight is an increase in appetite hormones.

Your body boosts its production of these hunger-inducing hormones when it senses it has lost fat and muscle (16).

In addition, calorie restriction and loss of muscle mass may cause your bodys metabolism to slow down, making it easier to regain weight once you return to your usual eating pattern.

In one study, when men with less weight followed a diet providing 50% of their calorie needs for 3 weeks, they started burning 255 fewer calories each day (17).

Many women first go on a diet in their early teen or preteen years.

A lot of research shows that dieting during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of developing overweight, obesity, or disordered eating in the future (18).

A 2003 study found that teens who dieted were twice as likely to become overweight than non-dieting teens, regardless of their starting weight (19).

Although genetics play a large role in weight gain, studies on identical twins have shown that dieting behavior may be just as important (20, 21).

In a Finnish study that followed 2,000 sets of twins over 10 years, a twin who reported dieting even one time was twice as likely to gain weight compared with their non-dieting twin. Also, the risk increased with additional dieting attempts (21).

However, keep in mind that these observational studies dont prove that dieting causes weight gain.

People who tend to gain weight are more likely to go on a diet, which may be the reason why dieting behavior is associated with an increased risk of gaining weight and developing obesity.

Rather than producing lasting weight loss, dieting among people who dont have obesity is associated with an increased risk of gaining weight and developing obesity over time.

Fortunately, there are some alternatives to dieting that give you a better chance of avoiding or reversing weight gain.

Try shifting the focus from a dieting mentality to eating in a way that optimizes your health.

To start, choose nourishing foods that keep you satisfied and allow you to maintain good energy levels so you feel your best.

Eating mindfully is another helpful strategy. Slowing down, appreciating the eating experience, and listening to your bodys hunger and fullness cues can improve your relationship with food and may lead to weight loss (22, 23, 24).

Exercise can reduce stress and improve your overall health and sense of well-being.

Research suggests that at least 30 minutes of daily physical activity is particularly beneficial for weight maintenance (25, 26).

The best form of exercise is something you enjoy and can commit to doing long term.

Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of your weight in kilograms divided by the square of your height in meters. Its often used to help people determine their healthy weight range.

Researchers have challenged the usefulness of BMI for predicting health risk, as it doesnt account for differences in bone structure, age, gender, or muscle mass, or where a persons body fat is stored (27).

A BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 is classified as normal, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI above 30 refers to having obesity.

However, its important to recognize that you can be healthy even if youre not at your ideal weight. Some people feel and perform best at a weight higher than whats considered a normal BMI.

Although many diets promise to help you achieve your dream body, the truth is that some people simply arent cut out to be very thin.

Studies suggest that being fit at a stable weight is healthier than losing and regaining weight through repeated cycles of dieting (28, 29, 30).

Accepting your current weight can lead to increased self-esteem and body confidence, along with avoiding the lifelong frustration of trying to achieve an unrealistic weight goal (31, 32).

Try to focus on being healthier instead of aiming for an ideal weight. Let weight loss follow as a natural side effect of a healthy lifestyle.

The desire to be thin often begins early in life, particularly among girls, and it can lead to chronic dieting and restrictive eating patterns.

This can do more harm than good. Contrary to popular opinion, permanent changes in lifestyle habits are needed.

Breaking the dieting cycle can help you develop a better relationship with food and maintain a healthier stable weight.

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Do Diets Really Just Make You Fatter? - Healthline

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Dec 20

Neuropathy No More Reviews (Blue Heron Health News) Does It Work? – Outlook India

Neuropathy No More Reviews (Blue Heron Health News) Does It Work?  Outlook India

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Neuropathy No More Reviews (Blue Heron Health News) Does It Work? - Outlook India

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Dec 20

How Much Weight Can You Lose in a Week? – Men’s Health

THERE'S NO SHORTAGE of dramatic (and sometimes, totally legit) weight loss transformations on the webfrom the guy who lost seven pounds in his first week of dieting to the guy who lost 265 pounds in a little more than a year.

So if they can do it, you can too, right? Not necessarily.

Sure, some people might be able to lose five pounds in the first few weeks or months of dieting, but for many people, losing that amount of weight can be not just unhealthy, but downright impossible.

A lot of it comes down to a persons starting weightspecifically, the more pounds you have on your frame, the more of it youll be able to lose, especially in the beginning, says David Creel, Ph.D., R.D., a psychologist and registered dietitian in the Bariatric and Metabolic Institute at Cleveland Clinic.

Some of this is simple math, but the bigger factor at play is that your body is fiercely protective over the weight you already haveso the longer you stay on a diet, the harder it can be to see the number move on the scale.

Heres why: As we shed pounds, our metabolismi.e., our bodys internal fat-burning furnacealso starts to slow down, causing us to burn fewer calories than we used to. Its kind of like taking a backpack off, says Dr. Creel. Breathing requires less calories, walking down the street requires less calories, everything requires less energy.

So the less you weigh, the harder your body will cling to the weight you do have, making it even harder for you to lose.

Unfortunately, our brain doesn't have a scale saying, when you get to a healthy weight, we'll stop all this compensation, he says. It doesn't work that way.

So even though everyone wants to know the amount of weight they can lose in a weekand everyone wants that to be a big numberthe answer isnt always straightforward. Heres a breakdown of whats possible, and whats practical when it comes to weekly weight loss.

First off, theres a difference between how much weight you can lose in a week versus how much weight you should lose in a weekand trying to figure out the former can be dangerous.

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Wrestlers, boxers, people who have to make weight for a sport will often dehydrate themselves, says Dr. Creel. You can see people who maybe lose 20 pounds in a week intentionallybut its very risky.

Here's the thing about extreme diets, thoughas much as you might want to lose 10 pounds in the short-term, youre not doing yourself any favors over the long-term. Very low-calorie diets can cause you to become dehydrated, so any weight youre losing is probably primarily water weight, says Dr. Creel (and lets face it, that doesnt exactly count).

Plus, extreme diets can also cause you to lose muscle, which can further hinder your metabolism. Thats because our muscles play an important role in helping our bodies burn calories throughout the daythe more muscle mass we have, the higher our metabolic rate.

If someone goes on a pretty restrictive diet, they might lose 20 percent to 25 percent of their weight as muscle, says Dr. Creel.

Extreme examples aside, Konstantinos Spaniolas, M.D., associate director of Bariatric and Metabolic Weight Loss Center at Stony Brook University, says that losing one percent of your body weight per week is considered rapid, but within reason.

Say you start at 300 poundsa goal of one percent fat loss per week means youll shed three pounds a week. That can be reasonable. But if youre just looking to drop three pounds a week from a relatively lean 160-pound frame, youll probably have a harder time losing itor at least, without losing some muscle mass.

The general rule of thumb is about 1 to 2 pounds per week, says Dr. Creel. Even then, those numbers arent always consistent from week to weekit can be more of an average.

One Columbia University study showed just how much it matters for preserving muscle mass. For this research, scientists had people cut calories and then either do strength training or cardio workouts three times a week. After eight weeks, everyone lost more than 9 percent of their body weight. But in the aerobic group, 20 percent of that came from lean tissue (mostly muscle), while the resistance group limited lean-tissue loss to 8 percent, while still trimming down overall.vegan meals

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A lot of people lose weight kind of like stair steps, not a straight line says Dr. Creel. They might drop four pounds in a week, and then their weight doesn't change for two weeks, and then they drop two or three pounds. If you want to lose fat without losing muscle (or even lose fat while gaining muscle), youll want to start doing strength training.

To preserve muscle, youll also want to make sure youre eating enough protein, which provides essential amino acids that your body uses to make muscle. Dr. Spaniolas recommends eating about .8 to 1 gram or protein for every pound you weigh in order to retain muscle. There are plenty of ways to get that protein, including from these hearty with more protein than a burger.

Besides your starting weight, there are other factors that can make it easier or harder for you to lose weight. One of these factors is your dieting history. Not only will you burn less calories if youre smaller, says Yoni Freedhoff, M.D., author of Why Diets Fail and How to Make Yours Work, but complex hormonal and metabolic shifts are also at work, making it harder to burn fat the longer youre losing.

Men's Health The Lose Your Gut Guide

Men's Health The Lose Your Gut Guide

Scientists are still working to understand the mechanisms, but research has shown that people who have lost weight burn fewer calories than people who never dieted. That doesnt mean youre doomed. It just means you tend to lose weight faster at first.

Not getting enough shut-eye also throws hunger and metabolism hormones like leptin and ghrelin out of whack. In a small study published in Annals of Internal Medicine, volunteers on a reduced-calorie diet slept either 5.5 or 8.5 hours a night. In two weeks, they both lost a little more than 6.5 poundsbut those who slept more lost twice as much of that from fat. Sleep is so critical to everything that Mens Health even put together the best sleep strategies and products to help you do it better.

Of course, your diet will also play a major role in how much weight you lose. Dr. Spaniolas says correctly estimating how many calories your body needs is complicated, but recommends using a chart or calculator from the National Institute of Health. From there, you can omit about 500 calories per day to lose weight, but shouldnt go much lower to begin with. And even then, he says it may not be easy to sustain this reduction in calories if youre already lean and need fewer calories to begin with.

Watch what you drink, too: Alcohol can easily increase your daily calories intake if you dont monitor those calories. Men consume an extra 433 calories on days they consume alcohol when they have a moderate amount of drinks, according to one study. You need to factor in calories from alcohol in any weight loss plan.

If youre looking to lose a lot of weight or make bigger changes to your body, you might want to buy a body composition scale, which can measure fat, muscle mass, and more. (A tape measure and a mirror can also work.)

Just rememberits not all about the numbers. Sure, you might want to drop as much weight as possible one week, but a better question is, but what kind of changes to my lifestyle can I make that will improve my health over the long-term, says Dr. Creel.

There are other things to focus other than one-week weight loss, he says.

Contributing Writer

Cindy is a freelance health and fitness writer, author, and podcaster whos contributed regularly to Runners World since 2013. Shes the coauthor of both Breakthrough Womens Running: Dream Big and Train Smart and Rebound: Train Your Mind to Bounce Back Stronger from Sports Injuries, a book about the psychology of sports injury from Bloomsbury Sport. Cindy specializes in covering injury prevention and recovery, everyday athletes accomplishing extraordinary things, and the active community in her beloved Chicago, where winter forges deep bonds between those brave enough to train through it.

Health Writer

Melissa Matthews is the Health Writer at Men's Health, covering the latest in food, nutrition, and health.

Maria Masters is a contributing editor and writer for Everyday Health and What to Expect, and has held positions at Men's Health and Family Circle.

Excerpt from:
How Much Weight Can You Lose in a Week? - Men's Health

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Dec 20

15 Small Changes You Can Make to Lose Weight Faster, According to …

If your goal is to lose weight and exercise more, forget the deprivation diet and marathon workouts. Research shows that taking small stepsnot giant leapsis the best way to get lasting results.

Research shows that people who adopt smaller, positive changes to their lifestyle, such as drinking more water or walking five more minutes each day, lose more weight and keep it off.

"When you focus on just a couple of small changes at a time, you begin to ingrain some healthy habits that last for a lifetime, rather than trying an all-or-nothing approach that more often than not fails because it's too hard to follow," says Lesley Lutes, PhD, a professor of psychology who specializes in obesity prevention at the University of British Columbia.

To help you move more, eat less, and look and feel better, we rounded up the best weight-loss tips from health experts.

Mindlessly munching on a bag of chips could result in easily polishing off the whole thing. But writing down all the meals and snacks you've eaten can help you practice better portion control. It will also help you figure out how you can make smarter food choices. For example, if you're hankering for a bag of potato chips around 3 p.m. at the office every day, keep a bag of cashews by your desk so you're not making a trip to the vending machine.

Journaling can also serve as a reality check on your other eating habits, says Lutes. Do you skip meals? Eat the same meals during the week as on the weekend? Binge eat when you're feeling stressed? "Knowing your routine helps you figure out what changes are right for you," she adds.

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And we're not just talking about going for a walk during your lunch break. Get moving during your favorite TV shows. Do jumping jacks, run in place, go up and down some stairs, start dancinganything that gets your heart rate up so you feel somewhat breathless, says Geralyn Coopersmith, a certified strength and conditioning specialist and chief content officer for Flywheel Sports. Do it for each 2-minute commercial break while you're watching your favorite TV show, and you'll burn an extra 270 calories a daywhich can translate to a 28-pound weight loss in a year.

Packaged foods tend to be high in sodium, fat, and sugar, so you want to try to limit them as much as possible from your diet. Pick your top five processed foods, whether it be cookies, crackers, chips, or candy, and gradually downshift. "If you're eating six of these foods a week, try to go down to five," Lutes advises. Each week, drop another food until you're at no more than one or two. At the same time, replace them with healthier snacks, like baby carrots with hummus, Greek yogurt and fresh berries, or natural peanut butter with an apple.

Americans use their cars for two-thirds of all trips that are less than one mile and 89 percent of all trips that are one to two miles, yet each additional hour you spend driving is associated with a six percent increase in obesity. Burn calories instead of gas by following this rule: If your errands are less than one mile away, walk to do them at a brisk pace. Or, park your car, where you can run several errands within a mile, instead of moving your car each time.

According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, adults should get at least 150 minutes2 hours and 30 minutesto 300 minutes5 hoursa week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes1 hour and 15 minutesto 150 minutes2 hours and 30 minutesa week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity.

Basic bodyweight exercises, like squats and push-ups, are a simple way to build more metabolism-revving muscle in minutes at home without picking up a single weight. "Your muscles don't know the difference between working against your body's own resistance and on a fancy piece of equipment," says Wayne Westcott, PhD, fitness research director at Quincy College. "The one rule to follow is that each exercise should fatigue your muscles within 60 to 90 seconds," he says. For extra burn, you can add an resistance band to basic moves.

Try this mini-workout: Do 10 reps each of knee push-ups, squats, crunches, lunges, and chair dips. Then gradually increase the number of reps it takes for your muscles to feel fully fatigued.

Have a choice between riding and climbing? Adding two to three minutes of stair climbing per daycovering about three to five floorscan burn enough calories to eliminate the average American's annual weight gain of one to two pounds a year. Walking up a flight of stairs can also help strengthen your glutes and quads, so there are some strength training benefits as well.

Today's fitness trackers allow you to take more control over your health by providing you with important data about your eating, sleep, and workout habits. Consider purchasing a fitness tracker to help you monitor not just how many steps you're taking each day, but how many calories you're burning, how much sleep you're getting, what your resting heart rate is, and what your eating habits are like. It'll also help you stay on track with sticking to the goal of getting 150 to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise a week.

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You'll save thousands of caloriesnot to mention hundreds of dollarsover the course of a year if you pack your lunch more often. For example, a pre-made chicken Caesar wrap from a chain restaurant has 610 calories40 percent of which come from fat. It also has 1,440 milligrams of sodium, which is more than half the recommended daily amount.

Make your own with sandwich at home with chicken breast on whole-wheat bread with light mayo, tomatoes, and Romaine lettuce. This will help you cut calories and sodium. "When you make and eat your own food, you not only control the quality and portion sizes but also reduce the amount of sugar, salt, and fat that you're consuming, which can be significantly higher in restaurant fare," says Ashley Koff, RD, a registered dietitian based in Washington, D.C.

It might sound contradictory to treat yourself to dessert when you're trying to lose weight, but the truth is, depriving yourself of treats can lead to overeating. Instead, portion out one serving of your favorite treat. Take a minute to smell it, look at it, and savor each bite. Chew slowly, moving it around your mouth and focusing on the texture and taste. As you do this, ask yourself whether you want another bite or if you feel satisfied. Tuning into your body will help you eat more mindfully and feel more satisfied.

"When you take the time to slow down and be more mindful of what something really tastes like, you'll feel more satisfied," says Lutes. "Many people will find that they're content after just a couple of bites and are better able to stop eating when they're satisfied," she explains.

Skip fruit juice, which tends to be loaded with sugar, and enjoy a healthy smoothie instead. Smoothies are a much healthier choice than fruit juices because they keep the fiber from fruits and vegetables intact, making them more filling and nutritious. But not all smoothies are created equally. It's important to prepare a smoothie that has a good balance of protein, carbs, and healthy fats. That means not loading it up with just fruit. Get muscle-building protein from protein powders, low-fat milk or unsweetened nut milk, Greek yogurt, or oatmeal. Add volume and extra fiber from dark, leafy greens, frozen cauliflower and other veggies. Top your smoothie with chopped nuts for a boost of healthy fats.

To promote satiety, eat your smoothie in a bowl with a spoon, rather than slurping it down with a straw. "When you chew a food, you generate more saliva, which in turn carries a message to the brain that your gut needs to get ready for digestion," explains Koff. "Drinking doesnt require such digestion, so the body doesnt register that its full as quickly."

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Sometimes you confuse thirst for hunger, which can cause you to eat more food than you actually need. So it's important to stay hydrated and drink sips of water throughout the day. Water is also key to better digestion and a revved-up metabolism. You've probably heard the golden rule that you should drink eight glasses of water a day, but the amount of water each person should drink varies greatly. People who are very active, take certain medications, or have a viral illness need to drink more water. The best way to make sure you're properly hydrated is to drink water whenever you feel thirsty and to take sips of water before, during, and after a workout. You can also stay hydrated by eating more water-rich fruits and vegetables.

Exercising with a friend helps you stay accountable and able to stick with your workout. Nobody wants to leave a pal stranded on a street corner at 6 a.m., but your workouts dont always have to be done face-to-face. If you subscribe to a weight-loss app, join the community boards and challenges, where you can find people with similar goals and share your progress.

A regular cup of coffee with a dash of milk and even a little sugar has hundreds of fewer calories than the blended drinks, which are practically dessert in a cup. You can easily lighten up your coffee order without sacrificing taste by opting for low-fat milk or an unsweetened nut milk, adding just a touch of honey for sweetness, and a dash of cinnamon for flavor.

Make a point to go to bed earlier, and youll notice a difference in your energy levels and mood. Research shows that just a few nights of sleep deprivation can lead to almost immediate weight gain. That's because when you don't get enough sleep, you're not able to make healthier choices throughout the day. When you're tired, you tend to compensate with fatty and sugary foods. You also want to take a close look at your nighttime habits. Is dinner your biggest meal of the day? Are you having too many midnight snacks? These habits could be messing with your weight-loss efforts.

Stay updated on the latest science-backed health, fitness, and nutrition news by signing up for the Prevention.com newsletter here. For added fun, follow us on Instagram.

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15 Small Changes You Can Make to Lose Weight Faster, According to ...

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Dec 20

(Alert 2022) Keto Clean+ Gummies BHB Weight Loss Pill CUSTOMER WARNINGS and FEEDBACKS – The Tribune India

(Alert 2022) Keto Clean+ Gummies BHB Weight Loss Pill CUSTOMER WARNINGS and FEEDBACKS  The Tribune India

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(Alert 2022) Keto Clean+ Gummies BHB Weight Loss Pill CUSTOMER WARNINGS and FEEDBACKS - The Tribune India

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Dec 20

Exercise, protein metabolism, and muscle growth – PubMed

Exercise has a profound effect on muscle growth, which can occur only if muscle protein synthesis exceeds muscle protein breakdown; there must be a positive muscle protein balance. Resistance exercise improves muscle protein balance, but, in the absence of food intake, the balance remains negative (i.e., catabolic). The response of muscle protein metabolism to a resistance exercise bout lasts for 24-48 hours; thus, the interaction between protein metabolism and any meals consumed in this period will determine the impact of the diet on muscle hypertrophy. Amino acid availability is an important regulator of muscle protein metabolism. The interaction of postexercise metabolic processes and increased amino acid availability maximizes the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and results in even greater muscle anabolism than when dietary amino acids are not present. Hormones, especially insulin and testosterone, have important roles as regulators of muscle protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy. Following exercise, insulin has only a permissive role on muscle protein synthesis, but it appears to inhibit the increase in muscle protein breakdown. Ingestion of only small amounts of amino acids, combined with carbohydrates, can transiently increase muscle protein anabolism, but it has yet to be determined if these transient responses translate into an appreciable increase in muscle mass over a prolonged training period.

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Exercise, protein metabolism, and muscle growth - PubMed

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