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May 10

Opinion | The Myth of Testosterone – The New York Times

These complexities hold in track and field events, too. Even the International Association of Athletics Federations own analysis of testosterone and performance, involving more than 1,100 women competing in track and field events, shows that for six of the 11 running events, women with lower testosterone actually did better than those with higher levels.

In other words, for most sports, testosterone levels do not correlate with superior performance. And yet even in the face of overwhelming evidence, the myths are so deeply ingrained in our assumptions about gender and athletics that the highest governing body in sports believes otherwise.

The obvious result is discrimination against female athletes such as Semenya who have naturally high levels of testosterone. But the harm doesnt stop there.

The athletics association insists that Semenya can still compete, as long as she undergoes medically unnecessary interventions to lower her testosterone level. (Because the testosterone rules have not yet gone into effect, she was able to run and win the womens 800-meter race at a meet in Doha on Friday.) The association underplays the risk of such measures, saying women with high testosterone can lower their levels dramatically by taking an oral contraceptive.

But hormonal contraceptives are often not enough to get testosterone down to the arbitrary permissible level. This means athletes must take stronger drugs, and endure chronic, significant side effects.

The Court of Arbitration for Sport expressed concern about these side effects, saying they could make compliance a practical impossibility for athletes. In fact, for that reason the court said its decision was provisional, and that the harms would need to be tracked.

Nevertheless, the International Association of Athletics Federations president, Seb Coe, gave reason for worry when asked whether he would delay the regulations for the 1,500-meter and the mile races regulated events for which the court said there was no evidence of a difference in performance among athletes with different testosterone levels. Showing a blatant disregard for caution, Coe simply replied, No, leaving us to wonder who will monitor the degree of harm, and how will problems be reported and recorded as they arise. How much harm will be acceptable to the court before it reconsiders its position?

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Opinion | The Myth of Testosterone - The New York Times


Apr 28

How to Deal with Testosterone Decline

Testosterone is an androgenic sex hormone produced by the testicles (and in smaller amounts in womens ovaries), and is often associated with manhood. Primarily, this hormone plays a great role in mens sexual and reproductive function. It also contributes to their muscle mass, hair growth, maintaining bone density, red blood cell production, and emotional health.

Although testosterone is considered a male sex hormone, women, while having it at relatively low levels, are more sensitive to its effects. While conventional medical thought stresses that testosterone is a catalyst for prostate cancer,1 even employing castration (orchiectomy) as a form of treatment, recent findings have shown otherwise.

The prostate gland requires testosterone for it to remain at optimal condition. Testosterone levels in men naturally decline with age beginning at age 30 and continue to do so as men advance in years.

Aging-induced testosterone decline is associated with the overactivity of an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase, which converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This process simultaneously decreases the amount of testosterone in men, putting them at risk for prostate enlargement, androgenic alopecia (hair loss) and cancer.

Unfortunately, widespread chemical exposure is also causing this decline to occur in men as early as childhood, and is completely impacting their biology. Recently, for instance, both statin drugs and the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide were found to interfere with the testicles ability to produce testosterone.2

The escalating amount of chemicals being released into the environment can no longer be ignored, as these toxins are disrupting animal and human endocrine systems. Whats even more alarming is that many of these endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have gender-bending qualities.

EDCs are everywhere. They lurk inside your house, leaching from human products such as personal hygiene products, chemical cleansers, or contraceptive drugs. They also end up in your food and drinking water, causing you to unknowingly ingest them.

EDCs pose a threat to mens health as they interfere with testosterone production, causing men to take on more feminine characteristics.

Heres one proof: in a number of British rivers, 50 percent of male fish were found to produce eggs in their testes. According to EurekAlert,3 EDCs have been entering rivers and other waterways through sewage systems for years, altering the biology of male fish. It was also found that fish species affected by EDCs had 76 percent reduction in their reproductive function.

Sexual development in both girls and boys are occurring earlier than expected. In a study published in the journal Pediatrics,4 boys are experiencing sexual development six months to two years earlier than the medically-accepted norm, due to exposure to hormone-disrupting chemicals.

Some boys even develop enlarged testicles and penis, armpit or pubic hair, as well as facial hair as early as age nine! Early puberty is not something to be taken lightly because it can significantly influence physical and psychological health, including an increased risk of hormone-related cancers. Precocious sexual development may also lead to emotional and behavioral issues, such as:

Pregnant or nursing women who are exposed to EDCs can transfer these chemicals to their child. Exposure to EDCs during pregnancy affects the development of male fetuses. Fewer boys have been born in the United States and Japan in the last three decades. The more women are exposed to these hormone-disrupting substances, the greater the chance that their sons will have smaller genitals and incomplete testicular descent, leading to poor reproductive health in the long term.

EDCs are also a threat to male fertility, as they contribute to testicular cancer and lower sperm count. All of these birth defects and abnormalities, collectively referred to as Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS), are linked to the impaired production of testosterone.5

Phthalates are another class of gender-bending chemicals that can feminize men. A chemical often added to plastics, these endocrine-disrupting chemicals have a disastrous effect on male hormones and reproductive health. They are linked to birth defects in male infants and appear to alter the genital tracts of boys to be more femalelike.

Phthalates are found to cause poor testosterone synthesis by disrupting an enzyme required to create the male hormone. Women with high levels of DEHP and DBP (two types of phthalates) in their system during pregnancy were found to have sons that had feminine characteristics Phthalates are found in vinyl flooring, detergents, automotive plastics, soaps and shampoos, deodorants, perfumes, hair sprays, plastic bags and food packaging, among a long list of common products.

Aside from phthalates, other chemicals that possess gender-bending traits are:

It may be unlikely to completely eliminate products with EDCs, but there are a number of practical strategies that you can try to limit your exposure to these gender-bending substances. The first step would be to stop using Teflon cookware, as EDCs can leach out from contaminated cookware.

Replace them with ceramic ones. Stop eating out of cans, as the sealant used for the can liner is almost always made from powerful endocrine-disrupting petrochemicals known as bisphenols, e.g. Bisphenol A, Bisphenol S. You should also get rid of cleaning products loaded with chemicals, artificial air fresheners, dryer sheets, fabric softeners, vinyl shower curtains, chemical-laden shampoos, and personal hygiene products. Replace them all with natural, toxin-free alternatives.

Adjusting your diet can also help, since many processed foods contain gender-bending toxins. Switch to organic foods, which are cultivated without chemical interventions.

As mentioned above, your testosterone stores also decline naturally as you age. However, there are methods that can help boost your levels. Below are some options you can consider:

If you suspect that you have insufficient testosterone stores, you should have your levels tested. Issues linked to testosterone decline include:

A blood test may not be enough to determine your levels, because testosterone levels can fluctuate during the day. Once you determine that you do have low levels, there are a number of options to take.

There are synthetic and bioidentical testosterone products out on the market, but I advise using bioidentical hormones like DHEA. DHEA is a hormone secreted by your adrenal glands. This substance is the most abundant precursor hormone in the human body. It is crucial for the creation of vital hormones, including testosterone and other sex hormones.

The natural production of DHEA is also age-dependent. Prior to puberty, the body produces very little DHEA. Production of this prohormone peaks during your late 20s or early 30s. With age, DHEA production begins to decline. The adrenal glands also manufacture the stress hormone cortisol, which is in direct competition with DHEA for production because they use the same hormonal substrate known as pregnenolone.

Chronic stress basically causes excessive cortisol levels and impairs DHEA production, which is why stress is another factor for low testosterone levels.

It is important not to use any DHEA product without the supervision of a professional. Find a qualified health care provider who will monitor your hormone levels and determine if you require supplementation. Rather than using an oral hormone supplementation, I recommend trans-mucosal (vagina or rectum) application. Skin application may not be wise, as it makes it difficult to measure the dosage you receive. This may cause you to end up receiving more than what your body requires.

I recommend using a trans-mucosal DHEA cream. Applying it to the rectum or if you are a a woman, your vagina, will allow the mucous epithelial membranes that line your mucosa to perform effective absorption. These membranes regulate absorption and inhibit the production of unwanted metabolites of DHEA. I personally apply 50 milligrams of trans-rectal DHEA cream twice a day this has improved my own testosterone levels significantly.

However, please note that I do NOT recommend prolonged supplementation of hormones. Doing so can trick your body into halting its own DHEA production and may cause your adrenals to become seriously impaired down.

Prostate hyperplasia (BPH), or simply an enlarged prostate, is a serious problem among men, especially those over age 60. As Ive pointed out, high testosterone levels are not a precursor to an enlarged prostate or cancer; rather, excessive DHT and estrogen levels formed as metabolites of testosterone are. Conventional medicine uses two classes of drugs to treat BPH, each having a number of serious side effects. These are:

According to Dr. Rudi Moerck, an expert in chemistry and drug industry insider, men who have low levels of testosterone may experience the following problems:

Instead of turning to some drug that can only ameliorate symptoms and cause additional complications, I recommend using a natural saw palmetto supplement. Dr. Moerck says that there are about 100 clinical studies on the benefits of saw palmetto, one of them being a contributed to decreased prostate cancer risk. When choosing a saw palmetto supplement, you should be wary of the brand, as there are those that use an inactive form of the plant.

Saw palmetto is a very potent supplement, but only if a high-quality source is used. Dr. Moerck recommends using an organic supercritical CO2 extract of saw palmetto oil, which is dark green in color. Since saw palmetto is a fat-soluble supplement, taking it with eggs will enhance the absorption of its nutrients.

There is also solid research indicating that if you take astaxanthin in combination with saw palmetto, you may experience significant synergistic benefits. A 2009 study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition found that an optimal dose of saw palmetto and astaxanthin decreased both DHT and estrogen while simultaneously increasing testosterone.6

Also, in order to block the synthesis of excess estrogen (estradiol) from testosterone there are excellent foods and plant extracts that may help to block the enzyme known as aromatase which is responsible producing estrogen. Some of these include white button mushrooms, grape seed extract and nettles.7

In addition to using bioidentical hormones or saw palmetto, there are two nutrients that have been found to be beneficial to testicular health and testosterone production.

Zinc Zinc is an important mineral in testosterone production.8 Yet, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that about 45 percent of adults over 60 have low zinc levels due to insufficient intake. Regardless of supplementation, 20 to 25 percent of older adults still had inadequate levels.9

It was found that supplementing with zinc for as little as six weeks has been shown to improve testosterone in men with low levels. On the other hand, restricting zinc dietary sources yielded to a drop in the production of the male hormone.10 Excellent sources of zinc include:

Oysters

Protein-rich foods like meats and fish

Raw milk and raw cheese

Beans

Fermented foods, like yogurt and kefir

You may also take a zinc supplement to raise your levels. Just stick to a dosage of less than 40 milligrams a day. Overdosing on zinc may cause nausea or inhibit the absorption of essential minerals in your body, like copper.

Vitamin D Vitamin D deficiency is a growing epidemic in the US, and is profoundly affecting mens health. The cholesterol-derived steroid hormone vitamin D is crucial for mens health. It plays a role in the development of the sperm cell nucleus, and helps maintain semen quality and sperm count. Vitamin D can also increase your testosterone level, helping improve your libido.

Have your vitamin D levels tested using a 25(OH)D or a 25-hydroxyvitamin D test. The optimal level of vitamin D is around 50 to 70 ng/ml for adults. There are three effective sources of vitamin D:

Healthy sun exposure

Safe-tanning beds

Vitamin D3 supplementation

Learn more about how to optimize your vitamin D levels by watching my 1-hour lecture on vitamin D.

Research presented at the Endocrine Societys 2012 conference discussed the link between weight and testosterone levels. Overweight men were more prone to having low testosterone levels, and shedding excess pounds may alleviate this problem. Managing your weight means you have to manage your diet. Below are some ways to jumpstart a healthy diet:

Limit processed sugar in your diet As excessive sugar consumption (mainly fructose) is the driving force of obesity. But this isnt a license to use artificial sweeteners, because these also have their share of negative effects.

It is ideal to keep your total fructose consumption, including fructose from fruits, below 25 grams a day. If you have a chronic condition like diabetes, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol, it is wise to keep it below 15 grams per day.

Eliminate refined carbohydrates from processed foods Like cereals and soda, because they contribute to insulin resistance.

Consume vegetable carbohydrates and healthy fats Your body requires the carbohydrates from fresh vegetables rather than grains and sugars. In addition to mono- or polyunsaturated fats found in avocados and raw nuts, saturated fats are also essential to building your testosterone production. According to research, there was a decrease in testosterone stores in people who consumed a diet low in animal-based fat.11

Aside from avocados and raw nuts, ideal sources of healthy fat that can boost your testosterone levels include:

Olives and olive oil

Coconuts and coconut oil

Butter made from raw grass-fed organic milk

Raw nuts, such as almonds or pecans

Organic pastured egg yolks

Avocados

Grass-fed meats

Palm oil

Unheated organic nut oils

Consume organic dairy products, like high-quality cheeses and whey protein, to boost your branch chain amino acids (BCAA) According to research, BCAAs were found to raise testosterone levels, particularly when taken with strength training.12 While there are supplements that provide BCAAs, I believe that leucine, found in dairy products, carries the highest concentrations of this beneficial amino acid.

For a more comprehensive look at what you should or shouldnt eat, refer to my nutrition plan.

Unlike aerobics or prolonged moderate exercise, short, intense exercise was found to be beneficial in increasing testosterone levels.

The results are enhanced with the help of intermittent fasting. Intermittent fasting helps boost testosterone by improving the expression of satiety hormones, like insulin, leptin, adiponectin, glucacgon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CKK), and melanocortins, which are linked to healthy testosterone function, increased libido, and the prevention of age-induced testosterone decline.

When it comes to an exercise plan that will complement testosterone function and production (along with overall health), I recommend including not just aerobics in your routine, but also:

High-intensity interval training Work out all your muscle fibers in under 20 to 30 minutes. Learn more about my Peak Fitness regimen.

Strength training When you use strength training to raise your testosterone, youll want to increase the weight and lower your number of reps. Focus on doing exercises that work a wider number of muscles, such as squats or dead lifts. Take your workout to the next level by learning the principles of Super-Slow Weight Training.

For more information on how exercise can be used as a natural testosterone booster, read my article Testosterone Surge After Exercise May Help Remodel the Mind.

The production of the stress hormone cortisol blocks the production and effects of testosterone. From a biological perspective, cortisol increases your fight or flight response, thereby lowering testosterone-associated functions such as mating, competing, and aggression. Chronic stress can take a toll on testosterone production, as well as your overall health.

Therefore, stress management is equally important to a healthy diet and regular exercise. Tools you can use to stay stress-free include prayer, meditation, laughter, and yoga. Relaxation skills, such as deep breathing and visualization, can also promote your emotional health.

Among my favorite stress management tools is the Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), a method similar to acupuncture but without the use of needles. EFT is known to eliminate negative behavior and instill a positive mentality. Always bear in mind that your emotional health is strongly linked to your physical health, and you have to pay attention to your negative feelings as much as you do to the foods you eat.

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How to Deal with Testosterone Decline


Mar 20

Testosterone level: Can you boost it naturally? – Mayo Clinic

Aside from making healthy lifestyle choices and addressing medication side effects or untreated medical conditions, there's little you can do to naturally boost your testosterone level.

Testosterone levels vary greatly among men. In general, however, older men tend to have lower testosterone levels than do younger men. Testosterone levels gradually decline throughout adulthood about 1 percent a year after age 30 on average.

A blood test is the only way to diagnose a low testosterone level or a reduction in the bioavailability of testosterone. Some men have a lower than normal testosterone level without signs or symptoms. For most men, no treatment is needed. But for some others, very low testosterone levels lead to a condition in which bones become weak and brittle (osteoporosis). For others, low testosterone might cause changes in sexual function, sleep patterns, emotions and the body.

However, some of these signs and symptoms can be caused by factors other than low testosterone, including medication side effects, thyroid problems, depression and excessive alcohol use. There are also conditions, such as obstructive sleep apnea, that might affect testosterone levels. Once these conditions are identified and treated, testosterone typically will return to a normal level.

If you are experiencing signs and symptoms that might be the result of a low testosterone level, consult your doctor. He or she can evaluate possible causes for the way you feel and explain possible treatment options. In addition, these steps might help:

.

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Testosterone level: Can you boost it naturally? - Mayo Clinic


Mar 9

Low testosterone | Andrology Australia

What are androgens?

Hormones are chemical messengers madeby glands in the body that are carried inthe blood to act on other organs in thebody. Hormones are needed for growth,reproduction and well-being.

Androgens are male sex hormones thatincrease at puberty and are needed for aboy to develop into a sexually mature adultwho can reproduce. The most importantandrogen is testosterone.

Testosterone is the most important androgen (male sex hormone) in men and it is needed for normal reproductive and sexual function. Testosterone is important for the physical changes that happen during male puberty, such as development of the penis and testes, and for the features typical of adult men such as facial and body hair and a masculine physique. Testosterone also acts on cells in the testes to make sperm.

Testosterone is also important for overall good health. It helps the growth of bones and muscles, and affects mood and libido (sex drive). Some testosterone is changed into oestrogen, the female sex hormone, and this is important for bone health in men.

Testosterone is mainly made in the testes. A small amount of testosterone is also made by the adrenal glands, which are walnut-sized glands that sit on top of the kidneys.

The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus,located at the base of the brain, controlthe production of male hormones andsperm. Luteinizing hormone (LH) andfollicle stimulating hormone (FSH) arethe two important messenger hormonesmade by the pituitary gland that act onthe testes.

LH is needed for the Leydig cells in thetestes to make testosterone, the male sexhormone. Testosterone and FSH from thepituitary gland then act together on theseminiferous tubules (sperm-producingtubes) in the testes to make sperm.

Androgen, or testosterone, deficiency iswhen the body is not able to make enoughtestosterone for the body to functionnormally. Although not a life-threateningproblem, androgen deficiency can affectyour quality of life.

Androgen deficiency due to diseases of the testes or hypothalamus-pituitary affects about one in 200 men under 60 years of age. It is likely that androgen deficiency is under-diagnosed and that many men are missing out on the benefits of treatment. About one in 10 older men may have testosterone levels lower than those in young men, but this is usually linked with chronic illness and obesity. The benefits and risks of testosterone treatment for such men are not yet known.

Testosterone levels in men are highestbetween the ages of 20 and 30 years. Asmen age there is a small, gradual drop intestosterone levels; they may drop by up toone third between 30 and 80 years of age.

Some men will have a greater drop intestosterone levels as they age, especiallywhen they are obese or have other chronic(long-term) medical problems. On the otherhand, healthy older men with normal bodyweight may not experience any drop inserum testosterone levels.

There is no such thing as male menopauseor andropause that can be compared tomenopause in women.

Low energy levels, mood swings, irritability,poor concentration, reduced muscle strengthand low sex drive can be symptoms ofandrogen deficiency (low testosterone).Symptoms often overlap with those of otherillnesses. The symptoms of androgen deficiencyare different for men of different ages.

Androgen deficiency can be caused bygenetic disorders, medical problems, ordamage to the testes or pituitary gland.Androgen deficiency happens when thereare problems within the testes or withhormone production in the brain. A commonchromosomal disorder that causes androgendeficiency is Klinefelters syndrome.

A diagnosis of androgen deficiency involveshaving a thorough medical evaluation andat least two blood samples (taken in themorning on different days) to measurehormone levels. Diagnosis should not be simply based on symptoms as these could becaused by other health problems that needdifferent treatment. A diagnosis of androgendeficiency is only confirmed when blood testsshow a lower than normal testosterone level.

A reference range is used as a guide by testing laboratories and doctors to decide whether a persons hormone levels are normal or low, and whether treatment may be needed. Testosterone is measured in units called nanomalor. The normal testosterone reference range for healthy, young adult men is about 8 to 27 nanomolar but these numbers vary between measurement systems.

Androgen deficiency is treated with testosterone therapy; this means giving testosterone in doses that return the testosterone levels in the blood to normal. Testosterone is prescribed for men with androgen deficiency confirmed by blood tests. Once started, testosterone therapy is usually continued for life and the man needs to be checked regularly by a doctor.

In Australia testosterone therapy is available in the form of injections, gels, creams, patches and tablets, and works very well for men with confirmed androgen (testosterone) deficiency. The type of treatment prescribed can depend on patient convenience, familiarity and cost. Commercial testosterone products contain only the natural testosterone molecule that is chemically produced from plant materials.

Side-effects are not expected because testosterone therapy aims to bring a mans testosterone levels back to normal. However, testosterone therapy can increase the growth of the prostate gland which can make the symptoms of benign prostate enlargement (such as needing to urinate more often) worse. In the case of prostate cancer, testosterone therapy is not used because of concerns that it can make the tumour grow. Too high a dose of testosterone can lead to acne, weight gain, gynaecomastia (breast development), male-pattern hair loss and changes in mood. Any side-effects should be managed by a doctor and the testosterone dose lowered.

There are many herbal products marketed, particularly on the Internet, as treatmentsthat can act like testosterone and improve muscle strength and libido (sex drive). However, there are no known herbal products that can replace testosterone in the body and be used to treat androgen deficiency.

Testosterone therapy generally stops the production of the pituitary hormones FSH and LH, which reduces the size of the testes and can lower or stop sperm being made.

Testosterone treatment should not be given to a man wanting to become a father in the foreseeable future. If sperm production was normal before testosterone therapy, it usually recovers after treatment stops but it can take many months to go back to normal.

Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency aims to bring testosterone levels back to normal and to return muscle strength and energy levels back to normal. However, the use of androgens (anabolic steroids) by normal men to improve athletic performance is illegal and has important short-term and long-term health risks.

Men who use anabolic steroids will lower or even turn off their own testosterone and sperm production. It may take many months for testosterone levels and sperm counts to return to normal after stopping anabolic steroids.

There are no known ways to prevent androgen deficiency caused by damage to the testes or pituitary gland. However, if you live a healthier lifestyle and manage other health problems your testosterone levels may improve, if your low testosterone levels are caused by other illness.

Not all men have a drop in testosterone levels with age. A healthy lifestyle may help you to keep testosterone levels normal.

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Low testosterone | Andrology Australia


Jan 30

Progene

Progene is formulated to gradually supplement existing naturalprocesses. As a natural, non-synthetic solution, individual results will absolutely vary. Remember that not all supplements are for everyone. If you are taking other medications, drugs that require a prescription, have a medical condition, a history of heart conditions, issues with blood pressure regulation, or have prostate issues, ask your doctor if Progene is right for you. The information in this Website is provided for informational purposes only. It is not intended as and should not be relied upon as medical advice. Additional site terms apply Terms of use. The individuals shown may be renumerated models and depending on the page, may or may not be actual Progene customers or staff. The statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA only evaluates foods and drugs, not supplements like these products. Progene is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Testosterone loss due to natural aging is a natural process and not considered a medical condition.

2018 Progene HealthCare, Inc.Progene is a registered trademark of Progene HealthCare, Inc.All Rights Reserved.

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Progene


Dec 14

Oxandrolone – Wikipedia

OxandroloneClinical dataTrade namesOxandrin, Anavar, othersSynonymsVar; CB-8075; NSC-67068; SC-11585; Protivar; 17-Methyl-2-oxa-4,5-dihydrotestosterone; 17-Methyl-2-oxa-DHT; 17-Methyl-2-oxa-5-androstan-17-ol-3-oneAHFS/Drugs.comMonographMedlinePlusa604024PregnancycategoryRoutes ofadministrationBy mouthDrug classAndrogen; Anabolic steroidATC codeLegal statusLegal statusPharmacokinetic dataBioavailability97%[2]Protein binding9497%[2]MetabolismKidneys (primarily), liver[1][2]Elimination half-lifeAdults: 9.410.4 hours[2][3]Elderly: 13.3 hours[3]ExcretionUrine: 28% (unchanged)[3]Feces: 3%[3]Identifiers

C[C@]12CC[C@H]3[C@H]([C@@H]1CC[C@]2(C)O)CC[C@@H]4[C@@]3(COC(=O)C4)C

Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar, among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications.[4][5][6] It is taken by mouth.[4]

Side effects of oxandrolone include symptoms of masculinization such as acne, increased hair growth, voice changes, and increased sexual desire.[4] Uniquely among most AAS that are active by mouth, it seems to have little risk of liver damage.[4][7] The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid, hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target of androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.[4][8] It has strong anabolic effects and weak androgenic effects, which give it a mild side effect profile and make it especially suitable for use in women.[4]

Oxandrolone was first described in 1962 and was introduced for medical use in 1964.[4] It is used mostly in the United States.[4][9] In addition to its medical use, oxandrolone is used to improve physique and performance.[4][10] The drug is a controlled substance in many countries, so nonmedical use is generally illicit.[4][11][12][13]

Oxandrolone has been researched and prescribed as a treatment for a wide variety of conditions. It is FDA-approved for treating bone pain associated with osteoporosis, aiding weight gain following surgery or physical trauma, during chronic infection, or in the context of unexplained weight loss, and counteracting the catabolic effect of long-term corticosteroid therapy.[14][15] As of 2016[update], it is often prescribed off-label to quicken recovery from severe burns, aid the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and counteract HIV/AIDS-induced wasting. Oxandrolone improves both short-term and long-term outcomes in people recovering from severe burns and is well-established as a safe treatment for this indication.[5][6] It is also used in the treatment of idiopathic short stature, anemia, hereditary angioedema, alcoholic hepatitis, and hypogonadism.[16][17]

Medical research has established the effectiveness of oxandrolone in aiding the development of girls with Turner syndrome. Although oxandrolone has long been used to accelerate growth in children with idiopathic short stature, it is unlikely to increase adult height, and in some cases may even decrease it. Oxandrolone has, therefore, largely been replaced by growth hormone for this use.[18] Children with idiopathic short stature or Turner syndrome are given doses of oxandrolone far smaller than those given to people with burns to minimize the likelihood of virilization and premature maturation.[18][19]

Many bodybuilders and athletes use oxandrolone for its muscle-building effects.[4] It is much more anabolic than androgenic, so women and those seeking less intense steroid regimens use it particularly often.[4] Many also value oxandrolone's low hepatotoxicity relative to most other orally active AASs.[4]

Like other AASs, oxandrolone may worsen hypercalcemia by increasing osteolytic bone resorption.[14] When taken by pregnant women, oxandrolone may have unintended effects such as masculinization on the fetus.[14]

Women who are administered oxandrolone may experience virilization, irreversible development of masculine features such as voice deepening, hirsutism, menstruation abnormalities, male-pattern hair loss, and clitoral enlargement.[18][14][19] Oxandrolone may disrupt growth in children, reducing their adult height.[20][bettersourceneeded] Because of these side effects, doses given to women and children are minimized and people are usually monitored for virilization and growth abnormalities.[18][19] Like other androgens, oxandrolone can cause or worsen acne and priapism (unwanted or prolonged erections).[14][20] Oxandrolone can also reduce males' fertility, another side effect common among androgens.[20] In an attempt to compensate for the exogenous increase in androgens, the body may reduce testosterone production via testicular atrophy and inhibition of gonadotropic activity.[14]

Unlike some AASs, oxandrolone does not generally cause gynecomastia because it is not aromatized into estrogenic metabolites.[21] However, although no reports of gynecomastia were made in spite of widespread use, oxandrolone was reported in a publication in 1991 to have been associated with 33cases of gynecomastia in adolescent boys treated with it for short stature.[22][23] The gynecomastia developed during oxandrolone therapy in 19 of the boys and after the therapy was completed in 14 of the boys, and 10 of the boys had transient gynecomastia, while 23 had persistent gynecomastia that necessitated mastectomy.[22][23] Though transient gynecomastia is a natural and common occurrence in pubertal boys, the gynecomastia associated with oxandrolone was of a late/delayed onset and was persistent in a high percentage of the cases.[22][23] As such, the researchers stated, "although oxandrolone cannot be implicated as stimulatory [in] gynecomastia", a possible relationship should be considered in clinicians using oxandrolone in adolescents for growth stimulation.[22][23]

Uniquely among 17-alkylated AAS, oxandrolone shows little to no hepatotoxicity, even at high doses.[7][unreliable medical source?][24] No cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been singularly attributed to oxandrolone.[24] However, elevated liver enzymes have been observed in some people, particularly with high doses and/or prolonged treatment, although they return to normal ranges following discontinuation.[24] In any case, oxandrolone may be among the safest 17-alkylated AASs in terms of hepatotoxicity.[7][unreliable medical source?]

Oxandrolone greatly increases warfarin's blood-thinning effect, sometimes dangerously so.[25] In April 2004, Savient Pharmaceuticals published a safety alert through the FDA warning healthcare professionals of this.[26] Oxandrolone can also inhibit the metabolism of oral hypoglycemic agents.[14] It may worsen edema when taken alongside corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic hormone.[14]

Like other AASs, oxandrolone is an agonist of the androgen receptor, similar to androgens such as testosterone and DHT.[4] This increases protein synthesis, which increases muscle growth, lean body mass, and bone mineral density.[6]

Compared to testosterone and many other AASs, oxandrolone is less androgenic relative to its strength as an anabolic.[4][27] Oxandrolone has about 322 to 633% of the anabolic potency and 24% of the androgenic potency of methyltestosterone.[4] Similarly, oxandrolone has as much as 6times the anabolic potency of testosterone and has significantly reduced androgenic potency in comparison.[4] The reduced ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity of oxandrolone often motivates its medical use in children and women because less androgenic effect implies less risk of virilization.[4] The bodybuilding community also considers this fact when choosing between AASs.[4]

As oxandrolone is already 5-reduced, it is not a substrate for 5-reductase, hence is not potentiated in androgenic tissues such as the skin, hair follicles, and prostate gland.[4] This is involved in its reduced ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity.[4] Due to the substitution of one of the carbon atoms with an oxygen atom at the C2 position in the A ring, oxandrolone is resistant to inactivation by 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle.[4] This is in contrast to DHT, and is thought to underlie the preserved anabolic potency with oxandrolone.[4] Because it is 5-reduced, oxandrolone is not a substrate for aromatase, hence cannot be aromatized into metabolites with estrogenic activity.[4] Oxandrolone similarly possesses no progestogenic activity.[4]

Oxandrolone is, uniquely, far less hepatotoxic than other 17-alkylated AASs, which may be due to differences in metabolism.[24][4][1][3]

The oral bioavailability of oxandrolone is 97%.[2] Its plasma protein binding is 94 to 97%.[2] The drug is metabolized primarily by the kidneys and to a lesser extent by the liver.[1][2] Oxandrolone is the only AAS that is not primarily or extensively metabolized by the liver, and this is thought to be related to its diminished hepatotoxicity relative to other AAS.[1][3] Its elimination half-life is reported as 9.4 to 10.4hours, but is extended to 13.3hours in the elderly.[2][3] About 28% of an oral dose of oxandrolone is eliminated unchanged in the urine and 3% is excreted in the feces.[3]

Oxandrolone is a synthetic androstane steroid and a 17-alkylated derivative of DHT.[28][29][4] It is also known as 2-oxa-17-methyl-5-dihydrotestosterone (2-oxa-17-methyl-DHT) or as 2-oxa-17-methyl-5-androstan-17-ol-3-one, and is DHT with a methyl group at the C17 position and the C2 carbon replaced with an oxygen atom.[28][29][4] Closely related AASs include the marketed AAS mestanolone (17-methyl-DHT), oxymetholone (2-hydroxymethylene-17-methyl-DHT), and stanozolol (a 2,3-pyrazole A ring-fused derivative of 17-methyl-DHT) and the never-marketed/designer AAS desoxymethyltestosterone (3-deketo-17-methyl-2-DHT), methasterone (2,17-dimethyl-DHT), methyl-1-testosterone (17-methyl-1-DHT), and methylstenbolone (2,17-dimethyl-1-DHT).[28][29][4]

Oxandrolone was first made by Raphael Pappo and Christopher J. Jung while at Searle Laboratories (now part of Pfizer). The researchers first described the drug in 1962.[4][30][31] They were immediately interested in oxandrolone's very weak androgenic effects relative to its anabolic effects.[30][4] It was introduced as a pharmaceutical drug in the United States in 1964.[4]

The drug was prescribed to promote muscle regrowth in disorders which cause involuntary weight loss, and is used as part of treatment for HIV/AIDS.[4] It had also been shown to be partially successful in treating cases of osteoporosis.[4] However, in part due to bad publicity from its illicit use by bodybuilders, production of Anavar was discontinued by Searle Laboratories in 1989.[4] It was picked up by Bio-Technology General Corporation, which changed its name to Savient Pharmaceuticals, which following successful clinical trials in 1995, released it under the brand name Oxandrin.[4] BTG subsequently won approvals for orphan drug status by the Food and Drug Administration for treating alcoholic hepatitis, Turner syndrome, and HIV-induced weight loss.[4] It is also indicated as an offset to protein catabolism caused by long-term administration of corticosteroids.[4]

Oxandrolone is the generic name of the drug and its INN, USAN, USP, BAN, DCF, DCIT, and JAN, while ossandrolone is or was formerly the DCIT.[28][29][32][9][33]

The original brand name of oxandrolone was Anavar, which was marketed in the United States and the Netherlands.[4][34] This product was eventually discontinued and replaced in the United States with a new product named Oxandrin, which is the sole remaining brand name for oxandrolone in the United States.[4][35] Oxandrolone has also been sold under the brand names Antitriol (Spain), Anatrophill (France), Lipidex (Brazil), Lonavar (Argentina, Australia, Italy), Protivar, and Vasorome (Japan), among others.[4][29][34][36] Additional brand names exist for products that are manufactured for the steroid black market.[4]

Among those using oxandrolone for nonmedical purposes, it is often referred to colloquially as "Var", a shortened form of the brand name Anavar.[37][38][39][self-published source]

Oxandrolone is one of the few AASs that remain available for medical use in the United States.[35] The others (as of November 2017) are testosterone, testosterone cypionate, testosterone enanthate, testosterone undecanoate, methyltestosterone, fluoxymesterone, nandrolone decanoate, and oxymetholone.[35]

Outside of the United States, the availability of oxandrolone is quite limited.[4][9] With the exception of Moldova, it is no longer available in Europe.[4] Oxandrolone is available in some less-regulated markets in Asia such as Malaysia.[4] It is also available in Mexico.[4] Historically, oxandrolone has been marketed in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, France, Italy, Japan, and Spain, but it appears to no longer be available in these countries.[4][29][34][9]

In the United States, oxandrolone is categorized as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act along with many other AASs.[11] It is a Schedule IV controlled substance in Canada,[12] and a Schedule 4 controlled drug in the United Kingdom.[13]

Oxandrolone is sometimes used as a doping agent in sports. Cases of doping with oxandrolone by professional athletes have been reported.

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Oxandrolone - Wikipedia


Dec 5

Testosterone Levels Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

What is a testosterone levels test?

Testosterone is the main sex hormone in males. During a boy's puberty, testosterone causes the growth of body hair, muscle development, and deepening of the voice. In adult men, it controls sex drive, maintains muscle mass, and helps make sperm. Women also have testosterone in their bodies, but in much smaller amounts.

This test measures the levels of testosterone in your blood. Most of the testosterone in the blood is attached to proteins. Testosterone that is not attached to a protein is called free testosterone. There are two main types of testosterone tests:

Testosterone levels that are too low (low T) or too high (high T) can cause health problems in both men and women.

Other names: serum testosterone, total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone

A testosterone levels test may be used to diagnose several conditions, including:

You may need this test if you have symptoms of abnormal testosterone levels. For adult men, it's mostly ordered if there are symptoms of low T levels. For women, it's mostly ordered if there are symptoms of high T levels.

Symptoms of low T levels in men include:

Symptoms of high T levels in women include:

Boys may also need a testosterone levels test. In boys, delayed puberty can be a symptom of low T , while early puberty may be a symptom of high T.

A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

You don't need any special preparations for a testosterone levels test.

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

Results mean different things depending on whether you are a man, woman, or boy.

For men:

For women:

For boys:

If your results are not normal, it doesn't necessarily mean you have a medical condition needing treatment. Certain medicines, as well as alcoholism, can affect your results. If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.

Men who are diagnosed with low T levels may benefit from testosterone supplements, as prescribed by their health care provider. Testosterone supplements are not recommended for men with normal T levels. There is no proof they provide any benefits, and in fact they may be harmful to healthy men.

See the article here:
Testosterone Levels Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information


Nov 21

Testosterone | FDA Label – | AIDSinfo

Drug Description

Testosterone is a naturally occurring androgenic steroid hormone. [1]

[1] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3071

Testosterone (transdermal and injection) is used to treat hypogonadism, a condition that commonly occurs in HIV infected men, particularly those whose disease has progressed to AIDS. In addition to typical manifestations of hypogonadism (e.g., impaired sexual mood and functioning, loss of body hair, gynecomastia, bone loss, impaired sense of well-being), HIV infected men with hypogonadism may exhibit a disproportionate loss of lean body mass and muscle wasting. Testosterone replacement therapy is considered the treatment of choice for androgen deficiency and AIDS wasting in this population. [1] It has been investigated to assess its efficacy in reducing symptoms of increased visceral fat in HIV infected men. [2] Transdermal testosterone has also been investigated to determine its safety and efficacy in treating weight loss in HIV infected women. [3] [4]

[1] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3066

[2] ClinicalTrials.gov Testosterone for HIV-Positive Men With Reduced Serum Testosterone Levels and Abdominal Fat. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00009555. Accessed 05/01/07.

[3] ClinicalTrials.gov ClinicalTrials.gov - Phase II Randomized Study of Physiologic Testosterone Replacement in Premenopausal, HIV-Positive Women. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00004400. Accessed 05/01/07.

[4] ClinicalTrials.gov AIDS Wasting in Women - Anabolic Effects of Testosterone. Available at: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00006158. Accessed 05/01/07.

Topical for transdermal absorption. [1]

Parenteral for intramuscular injection. [2]

IInjectable suspension containing testosterone 25, 50, or 100 mg/ml. [3]

Testosterone cypionate or testosterone enanthate injection containing testosterone 100 or 200 mg/ml. [4]

Testosterone propionate injection containing testosterone 100 mg/ml. [5]

Testosterone gel containing 5, 7.5, or 10 g delivering testosterone 50, 75, or 100 mg, respectively, per day. [6]

Matrix-type transdermal system delivering testosterone 4 or 6 mg per system, per day. [7]

Reservoir-type transdermal system delivering testosterone 2.5 or 5 mg per system, per day. [8]

Store testosterone gel at controlled room temperature, between 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F). [9]

Store testosterone matrix-type transdermal systems between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F). [10]

Store testosterone injection below 40 C (104 F), preferably between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F), unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer. Protect from freezing. [11]

[1] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3072

[2] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3072

[3] USP DI 2005; p. 157

[4] USP DI 2005; p. 158

[5] USP DI 2005; p. 158

[6] USP DI 2005; p. 158

[7] USP DI 2005; p. 159

[8] USP DI 2005; p. 159

[9] USP DI 2005; p. 158

[10] USP DI 2005; p. 159

[11] USP DI 2005; p. 159

Testosterone is the principal endogenous androgen. Endogenous androgens are responsible for a number of physical conditions, including alterations in body musculature and fat distribution. [1] Loss of lean body mass is a common complication of HIV/AIDS, and HIV infected individuals undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have a high incidence of lipodystrophy. Although the pathophysiologies of wasting and visceral obesity common to HIV infection are multifactorial, testosterone replacement appears to have a favorable impact on these syndromes. [2]

Testosterone produces retention of nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and phosphorus and increases protein anabolism. [3] Androgens are highly lipid-soluble and enter target cells by passive diffusion. Testosterone or the active metabolite 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binds to an intracellular androgen receptor, which then translocates to the nucleus and attaches to specific hormone receptor elements on the chromosome. This process initiates or suppresses transcription and protein synthesis. Testosterone can produce estrogenic effects as a result of its conversion to estrogen. Endogenous plasma testosterone is maintained and regulated by gonadotropins within a normal range by a negative feedback system involving the hypothalamus and pituitary. Androgens also stimulate red blood cell production by enhancing production of erythropoietic stimulating factors. [4]

Esters of testosterone cypionate and testosterone enanthate given via intramuscular (IM) injection are absorbed slowly from the lipid tissue phase at the injection site, with peak serum concentrations reached about 72 hours after the dose is given. These esters' slow absorption results in a prolonged duration of action of 2 to 4 weeks after administration. By contrast, testosterone propionate given by IM injection has a comparatively short duration of action. Irritation at the IM injection site may cause erratic absorption of any testosterone ester. [5]

Transdermal testosterone is absorbed systemically through the skin. Approximately 10% of a testosterone gel dose is absorbed into systemic circulation. Increases in serum testosterone concentrations occur within 30 minutes of the application of a 100-mg dose of 1% gel. In most patients, physiologic concentrations are achieved within 4 hours, with percutaneous absorption maintained throughout the 24-hour dosing period. Serum testosterone concentrations reach steady state by the second or third day of dosing with the 1% gel. [6]

Percutaneous absorption of testosterone via transdermal systems varies considerably among individual patients; however, serum testosterone concentrations generally reach the normal physiologic range within the first day of dosing. These levels are maintained with no accumulation of testosterone during continuous dosing. Because genital skin contains high concentrations of 5-alpha-reductase, serum concentrations of the active metabolite DHT are generally in the supraphysiologic range for men following chronic scrotal application of testosterone transdermal systems. In some men, however, DHT concentrations may increase initially and then decrease to normal levels with continued therapy. [7]

In serum, testosterone is bound with high affinity to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and with low affinity to albumin. The amount of SHBG in serum and the total testosterone concentration determine the distribution of pharmacologically active and nonactive forms of the androgen. [8] Approximately 40% of endogenous testosterone in plasma is bound to SHBG, 2% remains unbound, and the rest is bound to albumin and other proteins. [9]

Testosterone is in FDA Pregnancy Category X. Studies in humans have shown that androgens cause masculinization of the external genitalia of the female fetus. [10] Because the risks clearly outweigh the possible benefits in women who are pregnant or who can become pregnant, androgens are contraindicated in these patients. Women who become pregnant while receiving testosterone should be informed of the potential hazard to the fetus. [11] It is not known whether testosterone is distributed into breast milk; however, because of the potential for adverse effects in the nursing infant, androgens are not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. [12]

Protein binding of testosterone is very high (approximately 99%), with 80% binding to SHBG and 19% to albumin. The metabolite DHT has greater affinity for SHBG than does testosterone. [13]

Biotransformation of testosterone occurs primarily through the liver. [14] Both IM and transdermal administration of testosterone avoid first-pass metabolism. Testosterone esters for injection first undergo hydrolysis of the ester to the active form, free testosterone. Free testosterone is further converted into two of the major active metabolities, DHT and estradiol. The plasma half-life of testosterone is highly variable, ranging from 10 to 100 minutes. Both testosterone and its metabolites are renally excreted in urine and feces (approximately 90% and 6%, respectively, of an IM dose). [15]

[1] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3070

[2] Solvay Pharmaceuticals Androgel Prescribing Information. August 2005, pp. 13, 15. Available at: http://www.androgel.com/images/ProfessionalInfo.pdf. Accessed 05/1/07.

[3] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3071

[4] USP DI 2005; p. 151

[5] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3071

[6] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3071

[7] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3071

[8] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3071

[9] Solvay Pharmaceuticals Androgel Prescribing Information. August 2005, p. 3. Available at: http://www.androgel.com/images/ProfessionalInfo.pdf. Accessed 05/1/07.

[10] USP DI 2005; p. 153

[11] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3070

[12] USP DI 2005; p. 153

[13] USP DI 2005; p. 152

[14] USP DI 2005; p. 152

[15] USP DI 2005; pp. 152-3

The most frequent adverse effects of testosterone include abdominal or back pain; abnormal ejaculation, or frequent or continuing penile erections; acne or local blistering of skin; anxiety; bladder irritability or urinary tract infection; breast soreness; cholestatic hepatitis, jaundice, and abnormal liver function tests; diarrhea; dizziness; edema; excessive sexual stimulation; flushing of the skin; gynecomastia; habituation; headache; hirsutism; hypercalcemia; increased serum cholesterol; insomnia; libido changes; male pattern baldness; mental depression or irritability; nausea; oligospermia; pain or irritation at injection site; priapism; prostate disorders; redness, burning, or itching at transdermal application site; retention of water, sodium, chloride, potassium, and inorganic phosphates; and seborrhea. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Frequent adverse effects among women receiving testosterone therapy include indications of virilization (amenorrhea or other menstrual irregularities; clitoral enlargement; hirsutism; and hoarseness or deepening of the voice). [5]

Pregnant women should not receive testosterone therapy because of the potential for serious harm to the fetus. In addition, pregnant women should avoid skin contact with application sites on patients because of the possibility that transdermal testosterone can be transferred from patients to their sexual partners or others in close physical contact. Potential adverse effects to female offspring exposed to testosterone in utero include clitoral hypertrophy, labial fusion of the external genital fold, abnormal vaginal development, and persistence of a urogenital sinus. [6]

[1] AHFS Drug Information 2007; pp. 3069-70

[2] USP DI 2005; pp. 154-5

[3] Pfizer Depo-Testosterone Prescribing Information, August 2002, p. 4. Available at: http://www.pfizer.com/download/uspi_depo_testosterone.pdf. Accessed 05/01/07.

[4] Solvay Pharmaceuticals Androgel 1% Prescribing Information, August 2005, p. 10. Available at: http://www.androgel.com/images/ProfessionalInfo.pdf. Accessed 05/01/07.

[5] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3060

[6] AHFS Drug Information 2007; p. 3070

Because concurrent administration of testosterone with oral coumarin- or indandione-derivative anticoagulants can cause bleeding in some patients, dosage adjustment of anticoagulants may be needed during and after coadministration of the two drugs. Concurrent administration of testosterone with hepatotoxic drugs, including but not limited to abacavir, lamivudine, nevirapine, tenofovir, and zidovudine, may increase the incidence of hepatotoxicity. Patients should be carefully monitored, especially those undergoing long-term therapy or those with a history of liver disease. [1]

Increased serum levels of oxyphenbutazone have been reported in patients receiving androgens and oxyphenbutazone concurrently. The use of testosterone by diabetic patients may result in decreased blood glucose levels and reduced insulin requirements. Increased clearance of propranolol has been reported in patients receiving the drug concurrently with testosterone cypionate. [2] [3] Concurrent administration of testosterone with corticotropin (ACTH) or corticosteroids may enhance edema formation; these drugs should be combined with caution, particularly in patients with cardiac or hepatic disease. [4]

[1] USP DI 2005; p. 153

[2] Solvay Pharmaceuticals Androgel 1% Prescribing Information, August 2005, p. 8. Available at: http://www.androgel.com/images/ProfessionalInfo.pdf. Accessed 05/01/07.

[3] Pfizer Inc Depo-Testosterone Prescribing Information, August 2002, p. 3. Available at: http://www.pfizer.com/download/uspi_depo_testosterone.pdf. Accessed 05/01/07.

[4] Solvay Pharmaceuticals Androgel 1% Prescribing Information, August 2005, p. 8. Available at: http://www.androgel.com/images/ProfessionalInfo.pdf. Accessed 05/01/07.

Testosterone products should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to any ingredients in the preparation. Testosterone is contraindicated in men with carcinoma of the breast or known or suspected carcinoma of the prostate. [1] [2] It is also contraindicated in pregnant or lactating women and patients with serious cardiac, hepatic, or renal disease. [3]

Risk-benefit should be considered in patients with cardiac failure, cardiac function impairment, cardiorenal disease, or edema; hepatic function impairment, nephritis, nephrosis, or renal function impairment; coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction; hepatic function impairment; hypercalcemia due to metastatic breast cancer; or benign prostatic hyperplasia with urethral obstructive symptoms. [4]

[1] Solvay Pharmaceuticals Androgel 1% Prescribing Information, August 2005, pp. 6-7. Available at: http://www.androgel.com/images/ProfessionalInfo.pdf. Accessed 05/01/07.

[2] Pfizer Inc Depo-Testosterone Prescribing Information, August 2002, p. 3. Available at: http://www.pfizer.com/download/uspi_depo_testosterone.pdf. Accessed 05/01/07.

[3] Pfizer Inc Depo-Testosterone Prescribing Information, August 2002, p. 3. Available at: http://www.pfizer.com/download/uspi_depo_testosterone.pdf. Accessed 05/01/07.

[4] USP DI 2005; p. 154

Click here to search ClinicalTrials.gov for trials that use Testosterona.

Prescribing Information from the FDA Web site. More current versions may be available on the manufacturer's Web site.Bhasin S, Parker RA, Sattler F, Haubrich R, Alston B, Umbleja T, Shikuma CM. Effects of Testosterone Supplementation on Whole Body and Regional Fat Mass and Distribution in HIV-Infected Men with Abdominal Obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec 12; [Epub ahead of print].Crum-Cianflone NF, Bavaro M, Hale B, Amling C, Truett A, Brandt C, Pope B, Furtek K, Medina S, Wallace MR. Erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism among men with HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007 Jan;21(1):9-19.Dobs A. Role of testosterone in maintaining lean body mass and bone density in HIV-infected patients. Int J Impot Res. 2003 Aug;15 Suppl 4:S21-5. Review.Engelson ES. HIV lipodystrophy diagnosis and management. Body composition and metabolic alterations; diagnosis and management. AIDS Read. 2003 Apr;13(4 Suppl):S10-4. Review.Hengge UR. Testosterone replacement for hypogonadism: clinical findings and best practices. AIDS Read. 2003 Dec;13(12 Suppl):S15-21. Review.

Here is the original post:
Testosterone | FDA Label - | AIDSinfo


Nov 13

High and Low Testosterone Levels in Men

What is testosterone?

Testosterone is considered to be the "male hormone" that's produced in men by the testes. Although women's ovaries produce some testosterone, the hormone is produced in much higher concentrations in men and it is responsible for many of the secondary sex characteristics seen in men such as a deeper voice and hair on the chest, in addition to contributing to a healthy libido, building muscle mass, and maintaining energy levels.

The problems associated with high testosterone levels are infrequent and rare in middle-aged and elderly men who are not receiving testosterone or other steroid treatments. When the testosterone level becomes out of balance, it usually becomes too low rather than too elevated.

What are the signs and symptoms of low testosterone levels in men?

The most common "out of balance" testosterone levels are found to be on the low side of normal; this occurs because a male's highest testosterone level usually peaks at about age 20, and then it decreases slowly with age. It has been suggested that a 1% decrease in testosterone level per year is not unusual for middle-aged (30 to 50 years old) and older males. While this decrease may not be noticeable in some men, others may experience significant changes starting in their middle-aged years or more commonly at age 60 and above. This drop in testosterone levels is sometimes termed hypogonadism, "male menopause" or andropause.

Low testosterone levels may result in a decline in:

Additional symptoms of in low-T in men may include:

What are normal or average testosterone levels in men?

In general, the normal range in males is about 270 to 1070 ng/dL with an average level of 679 ng/dL. A normal male testosterone level peaks at about age 20, and then it slowly declines. Testosterone levels above or below the normal range are considered by many to be out of balance. Moreover, some researchers suggest that the healthiest men have testosterone levels between 400 - 600 ng/dL.

What are the benefits of higher than normal testosterone levels?

Examples of benefits, which are modest, of men having higher than average testosterone levels include:

What are the disadvantages of having higher than average testosterone levels?

Examples of drawbacks or disadvantages of men having higher than average testosterone levels include:

What are anabolic steroids, and what their side effects?

Both men and women that utilize anabolic steroids to gain an athletic "edge" (for example, some professional athletes) or to increase muscle mass (for example, some bodybuilders) may experience high levels of testosterone and develop complications, and side effects, for example:

What is the treatment for low-T in men?

There is treatment available low testosterone levels. Doctors may prescribe medications that contain testosterone such as:

What men should not use testosterone therapy?

Not all men may be candidates for this type of treatment.

How often should a man have his testosterone levels checked?

So, how does one ensure that testosterone levels remain in balance? Some doctors suggest that monitoring testosterone levels every five years, starting at age 35, is a reasonable strategy to follow. If the testosterone level falls too low or if the individual has the signs and symptoms of low testosterone levels described above, testosterone therapy can be considered. However, once testosterone therapy is initiated, testosterone levels should be closely monitored to make sure that the testosterone level does not become too high, as this may cause stress on the individual, and high testosterone levels may result in some of the negative problems (described previously) seen.

Finding the appropriate balance of testosterone is possible through discussions with your doctor, and it requires your willingness to have testosterone levels checked before the initiation of therapy and then checked routinely in the future.

Medically reviewed by Michael Wolff, MD; American Board of Urology

REFERENCES:

FDA evaluating risk of stroke, heart attack and death with FDA-approved testosterone products.

Harvard Health Publications, Harvard Medical School. Is testosterone replacement therapy safe? Take a look at the latest evidence in the February 2014 Harvard Men's Health Watch.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids.

St. Louis Post-Dispatch. New medical review refutes link between testosterone replacement therapy and heart disease; low t institute weighs in.

Southeastern Medical Oncology Center. Polycythemia is a Common Blood Problem.

Urologyhealth.org. Low Testosterone (Hypogonadism).

Read this article:
High and Low Testosterone Levels in Men


Oct 9

Glossary | Scarleteen

abortion

A procedure to intentionally end a pregnancy before a birth. Miscarriage is also sometimes called "spontaneous abortion," even though it is usually not intended.

Purposeful harm or mistreatment of another person, which can be verbal, emotional, physical or sexual. An ongoing pattern or cycle of such mistreatment or harm can characterize an abusive relationship.

In the context of sexuality, an abbreviation for asexual.

People older than you who probably drive you batty. Or, people whose age in years exceeds the legal age of majority; people considered to be adults by law.

A state or demonstration of fondness or care for someone, which may or may not be sexual.

The age at which a person is considered in law to be able to consent to sexual activity. Someone above this age who has sex with someone below it can often be charged with statutory rape, even if the younger person wants to consent.

When two people are of different ages or life stages, usually with a substantial difference.

A chosen or felt lack of gender identity.

Behaving in a pushy, forceful or violent way.

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a very serious and often deadly disease of the immune system caused by HIV. AIDS itself can not be caught from another person, but those with AIDS have HIV, which is sexually transmissible. AIDS requires medical treatment.

When a penis is inserted into and held by the anus while partners move their bodies as feels good to them for the purpose of sexual stimulation.

Sexual activity involving the anus. Anal sex may include stimulation with fingers, the mouth, a penis, sex toys, or other objects or body parts.

Oral sex for, on or to the anus.

The body, parts of the body, or physical structure of organisms like people, animals or plants.

Being neither distinguishably masculine nor feminine (or a mishmosh of both), in dress, appearance, behavior or identity, either by choice or by circumstance.

The external opening to the rectum, located between the buttocks.

Not having an interest in romantic relationships.

A state of sexual excitement and interest that sends messages to the brain which create physical changes and sensations, such as increased blood pressure, erection, lubrication, loosening of the vaginal or anal muscles, and increased physical sensitivity.

In the context of human sexuality, someone who either does not experience or has not yet experienced any sexual desires at all, or who has experienced/does experience sexual desires, but not a desire to enact them with other individuals.

To be self-assured, self-confident. To stand up for oneself in a positive, nonviolent way.

The state or condition of being independent and/or having the right to independence.

An imbalance in the vaginal environment, including pH changes, that occurs when different types of bacteria outnumber the normal, needed and healthy bacteria. It often requires some from of treatment, but sometimes will go away on its own.

Describes sexual play and/or relationships involving exchanges of power and pain. B = bondage, D = discipline and/or dominance, S = submission and/or sadism, M = masochism.

Made up of two things or parts; a system with only two possible options or parts.

Prejudice against bisexuality and bisexual people.

Any number of methods people use to intentionally prevent unwanted pregnancy, including the condom, the cervical barrier, the implant, the patch, the pill, the rhythm method, the ring, the shot, the IUD, spermicide and withdrawal.

A term for sexual orientation which either describes a person who can be sexually and emotionally attracted to both men and women or merely to people of more than one gender.

A stage of very early fetal development. If cell development continues and a blastocyst implants in the uterus, it will become an embryo and create a pregnancy.

A slang term for a state of vasocongestion that becomes temporarily painful. Called "blue balls" because in those with testes, discomfort is also felt there, but people with vulvas can experience this too, and discomfort then is often felt in the uterus or clitoris.

Our sense, awareness and perception of our body in appearance and function as it relates to our sense of self.

Glandular tissue, fat, connective tissue and skin on the chest.

Describes a person who is intentionally masculine in appearance, behavior, dress, identity or sexual attitude. Often used in relation to femme. Most often used in the LGBT community, but can refer to people of any orientation. However, some people see use of the word "butch" as an insult.

Describes someone who does not engage in sexual activity, usually by choice.

A birth control device which is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering. Diaphragms, cervical caps and contraceptive sponges are kinds of cervical barriers.

The opening to the uterus, the bottom of which is at the back end of the vagina.

A method of keeping track of fertility by keeping careful notes on the dates of a woman's period, as well as her temperature and cervical mucus. This is often used by people who are trying to get pregnant but is NOT an effective birth control method, as it fails frequently due to fluctuations in a woman's cycle and the fact that sperm can live in a woman's reproductive tract for several days. Also called "fertility awareness".

A slang term used to describe either the hymen/corona or something which signifies someone has not done something for the first time. "Popping the cherry" often describes doing something sexual for the first time, even though with first-time sex, there are not usually cherries or the popping of anything.

A very common bacterial infection/STI. It can infect the cervix, urethra, testicles, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It can also infect the throat when acquired through oral sex. Chlamydia requires medical treatment.

A surgical removal of the foreskin from the penis, most often done in infancy, and most often done because of cultural or religious beliefs, parental aesthetic preferences or concerns about health. In some cases, circumcision is done at other times of life and/or for medical reasons.

Describes people who have a gender identity which is traditionally thought to match their assigned sex, and thought to match many or most of the roles, behaviors and appearances culturally expected of that sex. For example, someone who was sexed male at birth and whose gender identity is masculine; who also feels male. Often used in relation to transgender.

Prejudice, discrimination and oppression based on social or economic status/class or perceived or assigned social or economic status.

In a sexual context, usually a word used to suggest not having any sexually transmitted infections. "Clean" is a poor choice of term, however, since it stigmatizes people with illness. Better choices are "negative," "clear" or "STI-free."

A sexual organ both external and internal on the vulva and inside the pelvis of female sex-assigned people that is similar to the penis, but serves no other known purpose besides providing sexual pleasure.

Various ways we express and share feelings or thoughts, such as through speech, written words or symbols, sign language, body language, touch or art.

The onset of pregnancy, marked by implantation of the blastocyst into the endometrium (the lining of the uterus).

A thin sheath or tube of latex or another material, worn over the penis during sex to prevent or reduce the risk of pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted infections.

To agree to do something or give permission. In the context of sex, a person is giving full consent/is consenting when they freely and actively agree to do something sexual with someone else; however, the person still has the right to change their mind at any point. A person is NOT consenting if they do not actively agree, have been forced or pressured in some way or are in a state where they are incapable of full consent (such as when asleep, under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or below the age of consent).

Devices, medications or behaviors used to intentionally aim to prevent pregnancy, including the condom, the cervical barrier, the implant, the patch, the pill, the rhythm method, the ring, the shot, the IUD, spermicide and withdrawal.

A method of birth control that consists of a spongy device filled with spermicide that provides a barrier at the entrance of the cervix.

A newer name for the hymen, a thin membrane without nerve endings that most female-assigned people are born with that is just inside the vaginal opening. It gradually wears away over time due to hormones, vaginal discharges, general physical activity, sex and masturbation and/or childbirth. It does not snap, crackle or pop.

The internal "legs" of the clitoris, which are within the outer labia (labia majora).

Oral sex for, on or to the vulva.

Heather's pug, Sofia.

Virtual (as in, not in person) sexual experiences or encounters which involve text conversations and/or visual exchanges via the Internet.

CMV is one member of a group of herpes-type viruses. It is an STI transmitted through body fluids, and requires medical treatment.

How well something works.

In a sexual context, a discharge of genital fluid, usually (but not always) as a result of sexual stimulation and/or orgasm.

During a pregnancy, the term for the developing cells of an organism until around eight-nine weeks after an ovum was fertilized. After this time, the organism would then be called a fetus.

A method of contraception used to prevent pregnancy after sex or rape has already occurred, rather than used before or during, like most types of contraception.

To put something into action: to actively do something, not just think or feel it.

The lining of the uterus.

In a sexual context, when a kind of sex involves someone putting one body part inside the body part of another person, such as with intercourse. Some people use the word "penetration" instead.

When a body part, such as the penis or parts of the vulva, becomes filled with blood and enlarges and/or becomes more firm.

Various areas of the body with a greater number of sensory nerve receptors than other areas, which people may find particularly sexually stimulating, such as (but by no means limited to) the lips, tongue, palms, fingers, feet, inner thighs, anus, nipples, neck, collarbone, nose, ears, armpits and/or the genitals.

Written, visual or other kinds of media either expressly designed to elicit feelings of sexual desire and/or which people use to elicit those feelings.

A steroid hormone found in the bodies of all people which has several jobs. Like testosterone, people often say it's responsible for things it doesn't usually have much to do with (like mood).

Something that is not divided or shared with others; which excludes others based on a given criteria.

Two tubes that lead from the ovaries to the uterus. If and when an ovum is fertilized by a sperm, fertilization typically happens within the fallopian tube.

Fertility awareness methods of birth control, achieved by charting of fertility, ideally daily via cervical mucus and basal body temperatures, and interpreting that charting to determine when fertility is most and least likely, then abstaining or using a backup method during most fertile times.

Oral sex for, on or to the penis.

A barrier method of contraception somewhat similar to a male condom, but inserted into the vagina rather than put on the penis. It has a flared base that sits on the outer parts of the vulva to hold it in place.

Describes something society associates with or attributes to women and girls or a state, experience or assignment of being female.

Describes a person who is intentionally feminine in appearance, behavior, dress, identity or sexual attitude. Often used in relation to butch. Most often used in the LGBT community, but can refer to people of any orientation.

A method of keeping track of fertility by keeping careful notes on the dates of a woman's period, as well as her temperature and cervical mucus. This is often used by people who are trying to get pregnant but is NOT an effective birth control method, as it fails frequently due to fluctuations in a woman's cycle and the fact that sperm can live in a woman's reproductive tract for several days. Also called "fertility charting" or just "charting".

In humans, the stage of prenatal development after an embryo, usually from about the eighth-ninth week after fertilization.

A term used to describe deep manual sex, where many fingers or a hand are gradually inserted into the vagina or anus.

What some people call sexual activities that are not intercourse which they may do before intercourse or as a "warmup" to intercourse, such as kissing, manual sex or oral sex. However, all kinds of "foreplay" can also be or are kinds of sex, and may sometimes be the only sex people choose to or can engage in at a given time, or altogether.

A loose tube of skin with nerve endings that extends from shaft of the penis to below the glans and which normally covers the head of the penis when it is not erect. Those born with penises are also born with a foreskin, but some foreskins are removed (circumcised) in infancy or later in life for any of a variety of different reasons.

A small fold of skin at the posterior (bottom) end of the vulva.

People who have a sexual relationship that is not romantic, but where they are also (and are supposed to behave like) friends. Often a casual relationship, but not always. FWBs may or may not be exclusive.

Rubbing against the body of another person -- usually with clothes on -- to express sexual feelings or seek out sexual pleasure. "Dry humping" is a form of frottage.

Friends with benefits.

A portion of the internal clitoris 1-3 inches within the vagina on the anterior (front) wall which can be sexually stimulating and which is often associated with female ejaculation.

In the context of sexuality, a word for sexual orientation which either describes a man who is sexually and emotionally attracted to other men, or a person of any sex or gender who is sexually and emotionally attracted to people of the same or a similar sex or gender. Often used alongside lesbian.

Characteristics that are seen or presented as distinguishing between male and female. Gender may or may not include assigned or chosen: sex, social roles, feelings, behaviors and/or presentation or appearance.

Discomfort with an assigned sex and/or gender and/or the gender norms and roles associated with either.

The way people externally communicate gender identity to others through their behavior and their outward, chosen appearance.

A person's own sense of whether and in what sense they feel they might be a man, a woman, a boy, a girl or gender nonconforming.

People who do not adhere to or who protest cultural rules or norms about dress, behaviors or activities for people based on their sex.

What is considered "normal" for a given gender or sex, even if it's not. These ideas may be widespread, or may be specific to a given group, area or historical period of time.

Describes someone whose chosen gender identity is neither masculine nor feminine, is between or beyond genders, which rejects binary gender, or which is some combination of genders.

Kinds of sex people have which involve the vulva, vagina, penis, testicles, anus and/or rectum or any immediate areas surrounding those parts.

External sexual or reproductive organs.

On the penis, the head of the penis. On the vulva, the external portion of the clitoris, beneath the clitoral hood.

G = gay, L = lesbian, B = bisexual, T = transgender. Additional letters sometimes added include Q = queer/questioning, U = unsure, I = intersex, P = pansexual, S = straight allies.

The organs that make ovum or sperm cells (the ovaries and testes respectively).

A bacterial infection/STI which can infect the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, urethra, mouth, throat or anus. It requires medical treatment.

An exam usually for those with a vulva/vagina that may involve any of the following: a visual exam of the genitals, a breast exam, a bimanual exam, a speculum exam, a pap smear, STI testing, birth control consultation and other education or healthcare services.

(Pronounced guy-na-coll-o-jist) A doctor that specializes in the health of the female reproductive tract. They may also be referred to as "OB/GYNs" or, informally, "gynos".

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