Search Weight Loss Topics:

Page 11234..1020..»

Jul 3

Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division I Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude – United States…

Authors: Sam T. Lawson, Julia C. Gardner, Mary Jo Carnot, Samuel S. Lackey, Nanette V. Lopez, and Jay T. Sutliffe

Corresponding Author:Jay Sutliffe, PD, RDFlagstaff AZ, 86011Jay.sutliffe@nau.edu928-523-7596

Sam T. Lawson is an undergraduate research assistant and student at Northern Arizona University.

Julia C. Gardner is a research coordinator with the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University. Mary Jo Carnot is professor of Counseling, Psychological Sciences, and Social Work at Chadron State College in Chadron, NE.

Samuel S. Lackey is the Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at Northern Arizona University.

Nanette V. Lopez is Assistant Professor in Health Sciences at Northern Arizona University.

Jay T. Sutliffe is Professor of Nutrition and Foods and the Director of the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, AZ.

AbbreviationsHEI: healthy eating indexg: gramsmg: milligramsoz: ounceskcal: kilocaloriesstd.: standardDGA: Dietary Guidelines for AmericansUSDA: United States Department of AgricultureRDA: recommended dietary allowanceRM: repetition maximum


College students are notorious for having poor quality diets and student-athletes are no exception. Collegiate football student-athletes often fail to meet overall energy requirements necessary to meet activity demands (65). The research herein assessed diet quality, body composition and physical performance of selected student athletes following completion of a brief, 8-week nutrition education intervention. The participants consisted of 55 Division I collegiate football players, aged 18-24 years (mean age 19.81.2yrs). Results indicated that group education sessions on nutrition had minimal impact on outcomes, perhaps due to the voluntary nature of the training. However, independent of the intervention, there were significant changes across time for the total scores on the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), strength performance measures, and total body water. Participants with higher HEI-2015 scores versus lower scores did not differ on strength performance or body composition outcomes. Specific nutrients, including sodium, protein, and solid fats negatively impacted strength performance, especially for the bench press measures. At moderate altitudes, athletes may struggle to maintain sufficient hydration (41). In this study, athletes with higher hydration levels (based on total body water and extracellular water) improved performance from pre to post assessments of strength performance in bench press, back squat, and power clean. The results highlight the importance of nutrition on athletic performance, especially the negative impact of unhealthy choices. Educational sessions on nutrition designed to improve eating habits may need to consider social influences, including everyday eating situations, via a combination of group and individualized approaches.

Keywords: micronutrients, nutrition intervention, athlete, body-composition, moderate altitude


College students tend to have poor dietary habits that include low micronutrient intake and high amounts of processed foods (36). Studies indicate that college students report low fruit and vegetable intake, with an average consumption of two servings of combined fruits and vegetables daily which fails to meet dietary guidelines (18, 21, 22). Although college students often adopt new dietary habits that are frequently maintained throughout life, their eating behaviors are typically unhealthy and include excessive consumption of processed foods, skipping meals, and/or eating at irregular times (62). Specifically, students who report following a Western diet consume the highest quantities of refined and energy-dense foods labeled high in fat and sugar, resulting in an increased disease risk (5). In this period of nutrition transition, college-aged individuals are consuming diets high in animal-source foods and eating more highly processed grains and carbohydrate rich meals resulting in lower fiber intake (53).

College student-athletes have higher energy demands due to exercise, training, and competition, but often consume nutrient intakes similar to or below recommended dietary allowances (RDA) (29), with many failing to meet energy requirements for their training style and intensity (46,60). Among those student-athletes who fail to meet their minimum energy requirements, football student-athletes have been identified in at least one study as having the greatest energy deficit (65). Research has noted that optimal nutrient intake along with supplementation, if needed, improves athletic performance and ultimately aids in recovery (11,30,63). Research has also noted that student-athletes who work with a sports dietitian have better dietary habits than those who seek nutrition knowledge from strength and conditioning coaches or athletic trainers (26). Among these positive dietary behaviors are consuming less fast food, not skipping meals, and eating a greater amount of whole foods (26).

To help student-athletes improve the quality of their diet, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 assessment which generates a diet quality score based upon nutrient intakes, is a useful tool (68). Developed with key recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), the HEI-2015 can be used to assess health risks among specific populations (58). For example, populations with adherence to a high HEI-2015 dietary pattern have a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers (47).

Diet quality plays an essential role in desired weight gain as many micronutrients have synergistic qualities allowing for better nutrient absorption from a wide variety of foods (32). This factor can impact football athletes because of documented evidence that a proportion of coaches falsely believe that certain positions require maintaining a higher weight or specific physique (9,10). Deliberate weight gain by football athletes through consumption of unhealthy foods can lead to metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (6,15). Intentional dietary programming should be considered for football athletes, specifically offensive and defensive linemen due to their elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (69). However, athletes should be warned against the sudden or excessive gain in body fat as that may increase their risk for metabolic syndrome (67).

Student-athletes who receive nutrition counseling could have improved physical performance while increasing their lean body mass and maintaining a minimum threshold of energy (1). Many student-athletes receive nutrition information from athletic trainers and strength and conditioning coaches. Unfortunately, these individuals often lack nutrition knowledge, certifications, and/or adequate time to properly counsel student-athletes on dietary information. Therefore, consultations with a trained dietetics professional may benefit student-athletes (31). According to Hull et al. (27), student-athletes with access to a sports dietician reported improved dietary patterns such as eating before exercise, healthy post-exercise meals, and more nutrient dense meals while traveling; all of these dietary improvements may lead to improved performance and recovery.

The primary aims of this study were to improve diet quality hydration, body composition, and performance outcomes among football student-athletes. Exploratory aims included examining intake of specific nutrients and their impact on performance. Specifically, this study was designed to address the following hypotheses:

Materials and Methods

ParticipantsParticipants were recruited from the mens football team at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I program. These student-athletes primarily train, practice, and compete at 7,000 feet above sea level, which is considered to be at moderate altitude (14). A total of 65 participants were enrolled, with 10 lost to follow-up procedures, resulting in 55 participants who completed measures at both the initial stage and 8-weeks post-baseline period. Participants were 18-24 years of age (mean age 19.8 1.2yrs) and ethnically diverse, self-identifying as African-American (41.8%), Caucasian (49.1%), Southeast Asian (1.8%), and other (7.3%). No exclusionary health criteria were developed for this study, as all NCAA student-athletes are required to complete yearly athletic physicals to screen for possible health risks. Participants were informed of the minimal risks of the study and provided written informed consent. The experimental research procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board #982568.

Study DesignBy design, this was a non-randomized pilot study where each subject served as his own control for measurements completed at baseline and 8-weeks post-baseline. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of implementation for consideration of future studies with collegiate sports teams. Following the baseline body composition testing, all participants received a five-minute individualized nutrition education with specific dietary recommendations to help improve their body composition parameters. After completion of baseline measures, participants were encouraged to attend three optional nutrition education sessions. To minimize scheduling conflicts, nutrition education sessions were offered every other week, during the middle of the week and on weekends. Sessions occurring in the same week covered identical material allowing all participants to receive the information uniformly. Each 45-minute face-to-face session included a lecture-style presentation that began with a food demonstration, followed by a lecture with a slideshow presentation, and time for open discussion. Sessions started with 10 minutes of the food demonstrations, followed by 20-minutes of nutrition education and 15 minutes of open discussion which typically centered on personal questions about the participants diet. The food demonstration included a discussion about why a particular meal would be considered effective fuel for the athletes. The participants were made aware of the nutrition education sessions through a group messaging app utilized by the athletic department which contained a link for an online sign-up sheet for testing and nutrition education sessions. Reminders were sent to participants via text messaging and email.

Diet Quality and AssessmentUndergraduate and graduate students, in conjunction with faculty, were trained to collect Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour (ASA24) diet recall, blood pressure, and body composition from each participant. Nasco food models/replicas, depicting serving sizes of commonly eaten foods, were used to confirm the serving sizes of food and beverages consumed during the 24-hour diet recalls. The ASA24 is a web-based tool developed by the National Cancer Institute to accurately collect 24-hour diet recalls, commonly known as food diaries (ASA24, 2019). Although the ASA24 is a self-administered program, to ensure completion and accuracy, the 24-hour diet recalls were performed by trained study personnel.

Dietary measures of kilocalories, sugar, fiber, cholesterol, total vegetable, total fruit, total grain, total protein foods, total dairy, vitamin D, calcium, potassium, sodium, and solid fat were collected via ASA24. The HEI-2015 was generated to provide an overall diet quality score from the data collected from ASA24. The HEI-2015 diet scores range from 0 -100, with 0 being the lowest diet score and 100 being the highest. An HEI-2015 score of 50 was chosen to represent a cutoff score since scores below 50 have been classified to represent a poor diet (23).

Anthropometric and Body-Composition MeasurementsEvaluation of body composition was conducted using tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) via the Seca mBCA 515 (8). BIA is an efficient and non-invasive technique that enables the determination of body composition based on the measurement of electrical characteristics of the human body over five body regions, including left and right arms and legs, and the torso. The data can be used to assess metabolic activity, energy consumption, energy reserves, fluid status, and abdominal fat. Phase angle (phA) in BIA is a validated measurement that correlates with the percentage of body fat (%BF), body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), and total body water (TBW) (37). A low phA is associated with increased morbidity and nutritional risk (39,51). Because phA is affected by body geometry, anthropometric measurements also need to be considered. Individuals with hydration outliers (i.e., unstable extracellular and intracellular water ratios) can obtain a phA measurement when using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, which uses the plot resistance and reactance normalized per height (35,64).

Nutrition InterventionParticipants were offered the opportunity to attend up to three optional, in-person sport-specific nutrition education sessions. The sessions were conducted over 8-weeks with those who participated typically averaging one session, every other week. The first session focused on the sport-specific nutrition topics related to macronutrients, micronutrients, and timed-eating. Macronutrient content focused primarily on the importance of proper carbohydrate and protein intake while information on micronutrients stressed the necessary diet for a body under physical stress due to training. Participants were encouraged to achieve adequate macronutrient and micronutrient intake through the consumption of whole foods, due to their greater nutrient density compared to processed foods and supplements. The second session focused on supplementation for an anaerobic training style with topics ranging from dietary supplements (e.g., protein powder and fish oil) to performance-based supplements (e.g., creatine and caffeine). The last session addressed the relationship between hydration and performance, including awareness of dietary, physical, and environmental factors that may promote dehydration. Participants were also provided information on how to calculate sweat rate in order to help them stay adequately hydrated through practices and training sessions. As previously mentioned, each session included a short food demonstration for preparing meals containing micronutrient dense-foods that met the minimum number of calories recommended per portion for football athletes.

Strength PerformanceAssessment also included strength testing for participants in the study. The primary goal of winter off-season training for football players is to increase their absolute strength and muscular hypertrophy, or more commonly known as increasing muscle size. The testing included a micro-cycle started by using a 1RM test on the power clean, squat, and bench. At the end of the training cycle, the 1RM was repeated to measure strength gains in each lift. The tests were conducted on three separate days to allow time for full recovery between testing days. Power cleans were tested first, followed by back squat and bench press. The athletes were familiar with all testing protocols provided by the Head Strength Coach and the assistant strength coaches.

Statistical AnalysisTo address the hypothesis regarding the impact of educational sessions on macro- and micronutrient consumption, supplementation, and sport hydration, participants were grouped based on whether they attended any of the three optional educational sessions. Initial grouping was based on comparing those who attended any educational sessions (experimental) with those who did not (control). Strength training outcomes, diet quality, and body composition variables were measured twice, at baseline and at 8-weeks post-baseline. Multiple 22 ANOVAs with time as a within-subjects variable and education as a between-subject variable were analyzed. Because attendance at educational sessions did not result in significant effects, groups were collapsed to consider change across time, with the initial consultation with individual athletes considered an educational session. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare selected variables across the two time periods.

Additional analyses were performed on specific dietary, body composition, and performance variables measured at 8-weeks post-baseline. Independent samples t-tests used median split comparisons for sodium, protein, and dietary solid fat to compare high and low groups on fat-free mass and performance measures. The HEI-2015 total score of 50 (USDA, 2019) was similarly used to separate participants into two groups, who were then compared using independent samples t-tests for BMI, weight change, fat-free mass, absolute fat mass and phase angle. Median splits were also examined based on extracellular water and total body water to determine impact on performance measures. All analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 26 software (28).


Analyses from the 22 ANOVAs using educational session attendance and time as independent variables indicated few differences between experimental and control groups. This unanticipated pattern of results suggested that there might be preexisting differences in our groups, such as ethnicity differences. Participation in the educational sessions was not well attended. Out of the initial group of 65 participants, 60% did not attend any educational sessions. Twenty percent attended one educational session, 12.3% attended two sessions, and 7.7% attended all three. When groups were collapsed to compare measures at baseline and 8-weeks post-baseline using paired sample t-tests, significant changes were seen in phase angle (t(53) = -2.301, p=.025) HEI-2015 total score (t(54) = -2.046, p = .046), total body water (t(53) = -2.501, p = .015), bench press (t(54) = -6.420, p < .001), power clean (t(54) = -3.494, p = .001) and squat (t(54) = -6.006 , p < .001). Marginal changes (p < .10) occurred for calcium and energy deficit measures (Table 1).

Table 1: Outcome Measures Collapsed Across Educational Session Attendance

Note. One participant was unable to complete the BIA measures. *p<.05, ** p<.001 Abbreviations: mcg, micrograms; mg, milligram, g, gram; kg, kilogram; %, percent; kcal, kilocalorie; oz, ounces; sd, standard deviation; BMI, Body Mass Index, HEI-2015, Healthy Eating Index- 2015

Education (see Table 2) indicated a participant attended at least one of the three optional intervention sessions. For energy deficit, there were marginal but nonsignificant changes over time (p < .10) (Table 2). Number of education sessions attended had no significant effect on HEI-2015 total score (p > .05) (Table 2).

Table 2: Energy Deficit and Total HEI Score Differences Based Upon Nutrition Education Session Attendance

*p<.05, ** p<.001Abbreviations: Ed education; HEI, healthy eating index; kcal, kilocalories; SD, standard deviation

Following the initial group comparisons, an analysis was conducted at week 8. The examination was intended to assess whether making healthier diet choices impacted performance measures. HEI-2015 total scores were examined, as well as specific nutrients (i.e., sodium, protein, and solid fats) using data from the ASA24.

A HEI-2015 total score of 50, data taken at week 8, was used to separate participants into two groups to compare 8-week body composition outcomes of weight change and performance outcome measures including, bench, power clean, and squat. Table 3 evaluated the relationship between the two groups differentiated by HEI-2015 total score and body composition parameters. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups (Table 3). Additionally, the two HEI-2015 groups were compared on 8-week outcomes including BMI, fat free mass, absolute fat mass and phase angle (Table 3). There were no significant differences between HEI-2015 groups on any of these outcome measures.

Table 3: Diet Quality and Body Composition Assessment at 8-weeks

Abbreviations: HEI, healthy eating index; BMI, body mass index; kg, kilogram; std., standard

Median splits of sodium, protein, and solid fats were used to divide participants into two groups and compared on the outcome measures of power clean, squat, bench press, and weight change at week 8. Participants who consumed lower levels of sodium (< 7427.5 g daily) performed better on squat (t(49) = -2.147, p = .036) and bench press (t(49) = -2.390, p = .021) measures, and tended to perform better on power clean, although this difference was not significant (t(48) = -1.685, p= .098) (Table 4). Participants who consumed higher levels of protein (>186.9 g) were not significantly different in power clean (t(48) = -.835, p = .408), squat (t(49) = -1.539, p = .130) or bench (t(49) = -1.807, p = .077), although bench press measures had a non-significant tendency to be higher for those in the lower protein group (Table 4). Participants who consumed fewer solid fats (< 66.0 g) were not significantly different in power clean (t(48) = -1.453, p = .153) or squat measures (t(49) = -1.825, p = .111), but performed better on bench press measures (t(49) = -2.50, p = .014) (Table 4). Due to the moderate altitude location of the research, median splits on extracellular water and total body water were examined in respect to the effects on performance outcome measures. All differences in performance were significant indicating better performance outcomes for student athletes with higher extracellular water and total body water. Specifically, those with higher levels of extracellular water (21.7 %) had a better performance for the bench press (t(49) = 4.216, p < .001) , power clean (t(47) = 2.819, p = .007) and squat (t(49) = 3.420, p = .001). (Table 4). Additionally, those with higher level of total body water ( 56.4 %) had a better performance for the bench press (t(49) = 4.482, p < .001) , power clean (t(47) = 2.819, p < .001) and squat (t(49) = 3.419, p = .001) (Table 4).

Table 4: Strength Assessment and HEI Scores, Sodium, Protein, Solid Fat, Extracellular Water, and Total Body Water at 8-weeks

Note. a, median splits based upon participant results at week 8Abbreviations: HEI, healthy eating index; mg, milligrams; g, grams; kg, kilogram; std., standard


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sport-specific nutrition education on diet quality, body composition, and strength training performance. The results indicated (i) improvements in diet quality (ii) body composition parameters remained constant (iii) dietary intake of sodium, excessive protein, and solid fat negatively impacted strength performance, and (iv) increased hydration status have proven statistically significant and can positively impact strength performance.

Sugar, fiber, cholesterol, total vegetable, total fruit, total grains, total dairy, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium outcomes did not result in any significant improvement over time, and were not associated with strength performance. The nutrition education intervention did not significantly improve HEI-2015 total scores, but diet quality improved over time. Although prior research indicated dietary compliance and nutritional knowledge improved following an 8-week nutrition education intervention among adolescent swimmers (50), the majority of participants in the present study did not complete the optional sessions. In the current study, the nutrition education intervention did substantially decrease energy deficit. Prior research demonstrated that energy deficit among athletes was reduced following attendance at four nutrition educational sessions (55). It is possible that participants in the study herein may have been seeking nutrition information from different sources such as the Internet, coaches, family, and friends (13), resulting in increases in calorie consumption. In the current study, the nutrition education sessions intervention yielded mixed results on HEI-2015 total scores and energy deficit. However, all participants received a brief individualized dietary consultation following baseline measures. Therefore, brief individualized recommendations may be an effective intervention strategy to make improvements in diet quality and reduce energy deficit.

Dietary quality was not a predictor of body composition in this study. Participants with HEI-2015 total scores of 50 and above were comparable to those with scores below 50 on BMI, fat-free mass, weight maintenance, and phase angle. Results from a previous study indicate that a higher diet quality score was associated with positive body composition parameters such as, lower body fat in adult men (16), and weight maintenance among university students (38). Additional research indicates that diet quality was negatively associated with snacking processed foods, but positively associated with body fat (4). The negative impact of poor snack choices may explain why our participants who scored lower on the HEI-2015 had greater, although statistically insignificant, fat mass. However, in contrast to the results presented by a different study (71), phase angle was not a useful assessment for measuring nutritional status because participants with lower diet quality scores had higher phase angle scores.

Dietary intake of sodium was a negative predictor of strength performance as measured by power clean, squat, and bench press. Participants reported consumption of foods with excessive amounts of sodium which is common among college students who frequently consume processed foods in campus cafeterias or fast food restaurants (3,49). Previous research suggests that slightly elevated sodium intake above the suggested daily amount (i.e. 2,000 mg) may help improve athletic performance (34,43). However, sodium consumption is typically timed in accordance to exercise (12). In the current study, not only was excessive sodium consumption detrimental to physical performance, but consuming higher than recommended amounts of sodium (2,300mg/day) was identified as resulting in negative implications for future health, including increased risk for hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke (45), and death (42).

There is a common assumption that protein supplementation is associated with greater gains in muscle mass and strength. This study found a trend toward greater strength gains when protein was not consumed in excess (1.8g/kg). In fact, protein supplementation has been shown to have little to no effect on trained individuals when dietary protein needs are met (48,54), including attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage (17). Protein supplements are processed food products and lack many essential nutrients necessary to sustain a healthy lifestyle (56). Because of the nutrient deficiency of protein supplements, it is recommended that collegiate football student-athletes avoid intake if they are already meeting their needs through a healthy diet (54).

Dietary intake of solid fat was negatively associated with physical performance; athletes who consumed less solid fat had greater improvement in strength performance. Non-athlete, college students have also reported a high intake of dietary fat consumption (70). High intake of dietary solid fats, which are common in processed food and fast food, can hinder physical performance (7,2). Elite athletes showed the greatest increase in sport performance when their diet consisted of a high consumption of protein and carbohydrates, but limited consumption of dietary fat (2). Although not measured in the study, frequent consumption of fast food (e.g., French fries and pizza) among college students could explain the high intake of solid fats reported by participants in the current study (20,52). The fact that university students tend to rate the most important factors for food selection to be taste, value, convenience, and cost may explain the prevalence of consuming high-fat processed, fast food (66).

Hydration is a crucial aspect in sport, especially when athletes are competing at elevation. Increased hydration status appears to positively impact strength performance (44). Extracellular water and total body water can be used as hydration status indicators; a deficit of total body water is predictive of dehydration (19, 24). In a study conducted among college age athletes, increases in intracellular water, which constitutes 65% of total body water, were predictive of improved performance level (61). Insensible evaporation of water is higher at altitude, increasing the likelihood of hypo-hydration (33). To allow for positive training adaptations at altitude, hydration status needs to be optimized (57).


The number of nutrition education sessions attended had no significance on improvements in HEI-2015 total score. However, there were significant increases in HEI-2015 total scores from baseline to week 8, indicating that the individualized nutrition intervention that every participant received may have been an effective intervention strategy. The HEI-2015 total score may indicate the impact of unhealthy diets as it is a combination of all aspects of ones diet but the examination of specific nutrients may be a better indicator for how performance may be affected. These individual markers of performance could be hidden by a HEI-2015 total score as one part of a diet might be considered good while another portion might be poor resulting in what looks to be an average diet. The potential performance markers seen in this study were sodium, protein foods, and solid fats which, when eaten in greater amounts shown to have negative performance effects.


High dietary intake of sodium, protein, and solid fat appeared to have a negative impact on strength performance. Although not measured in the current study, consumption of fast food and processed foods, which tend to be high in sodium and solid fats, should be limited in athletes due to their tendency to be detrimental to physical performance. A well-balanced diet should be encouraged as a variety in dietary intake improves performance and disease prevention (25,40,59). Participants with a HEI-2015 total score 50.0 had overall, though statistically insignificant, less fat mass, lower BMI, and better weight maintenance. Strength performance improved from baseline to week 8 in 1 RM power clean, squat, and bench press; athletes who consumed lower amounts of sodium, protein, and solid fat had greater physical performance than those who consumed higher amounts. Due to the lack of significant findings from the intervention, future research could consider using an equivalency trial to compare the effectiveness between an individualized nutrition intervention at baseline and a lecture/classroom style nutrition intervention conducted over time.

Strengths and Limitations

There were numerous strengths in this study, including expanding upon previously collected data from another research study (65). Participant follow-up was successful, despite the lack of incentives. Researchers assisting with data collection were blinded to nutrition education intervention status to avoid bias. Additionally, having the strength and conditioning staff perform data collection reduced potential bias from researchers. The established professional relationship with the strength and conditioning staff increased opportunities for nutrition-related research while assisting athletes improve their diet and performance.

However, this study was not without limitations. Dietary recalls were conducted over only one 24-hour period, which does not accurately represent a participants daily dietary intake. Additionally, reporting bias from participants may have resulted in lower reported amounts of less-nutrient dense foods, sweets, and alcohol. Limited variability in dietary intake reduced the likelihood of statistical significance. Lastly, nutrition educational sessions were optional, making it difficult to identify a clearly defined experimental group.

While scripted education at the time of testing body composition may impact athletes diet, there appears to be a disconnect from nutrition knowledge provided and what is actually implemented by athletes. Thus, application strategies for diet as opposed to knowledge enhancement may be more appropriate in determining the effect on performance. Individually reviewing the dietary analysis with each participant could improve understanding among the athletes regarding how their diet affects performance. Athletes who reside and train at altitude (e.g., 6,000 feet) are recommended to increase carbohydrate, hydration, and iron (on an individual basis) intake due to altered environmental conditions (41).


Ethics Approval and Consent to ParticipateThis study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Northern Arizona University.

Consent for PublicationNot applicable

Availability of Data and MaterialsThe datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Competing InterestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.

FundingThis research was funded by the Eric M. Lehrman 2015 Trust.

Authors ContributionsJay Sutliffe: secured funding; developed study design; collected data; wrote and edited manuscript

AcknowledgementsThe authors would like to acknowledge the support of the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University as well as the individual athletes who participated in this research. Special mentions go to Jason Farrow, Heather Marquis, Chris Stanley, Steven Stanley, and Hannah Olsen for their help during data collection.


The rest is here:
Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division I Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude - United States...

Jul 3

Five-minute urine test developed to reveal quality of diet – Express Healthcare

The technology, which produces individuals urine fingerprint could help enable people to receive healthy eating advice tailored to their individual biological make-up

Scientists at Newcastle University in collaboration with colleagues at Imperial College London, Aberystwyth University and Murdoch University have developed a five-minute test to reveal that the mix of metabolites in urine varies from person to person.

Metabolites are considered to be an objective indicator of diet quality and are produced as different foods are digested by the body, say the research team, who published their findings in the journal Nature Food.

In another research paper in the same journal, they were able to establish links between dietary inputs and urinary output of metabolites that may help improve understanding of how our diets affect health.

The findings revealed an association between 46 metabolites in urine, and types of foods or nutrients in the diet. For instance, certain metabolites correlated with alcohol intake, while others were linked to intake of citrus fruit, fructose (fruit sugar), glucose and vitamin C. The team also found metabolites in urine associated with dietary intake of red meats, other meats such as chicken, and nutrients such as calcium. Certain metabolites were also linked with health conditions for instance compounds found in urine such as formate and sodium (an indicator of salt intake) are linked with obesity and high blood pressure.

The team used this technology to develop a five-minute test to reveal that the mix of metabolites in urine varies from person to person.

The team says the technology, which produces an individuals urine fingerprint could help enable people to receive healthy eating advice tailored to their individual biological make-up. This is known as precision nutrition and could provide health professionals with more specific information on the quality of a persons diet.

Professor John Mathers, author of the research and Director of the Human Nutrition Research Centre, Newcastle University said: We have shown how different people metabolise the same foods in highly individual ways. This has implications for understanding the development of nutrition-related diseases and for more personalised dietary advice to improve public health.

Dr Isabel Garcia-Perez, author of the research also from Imperials Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction explained: Our technology can provide crucial insights into how foods are processed by individuals in different ways and can help health professionals such as dieticians provide dietary advice tailored to individual patients.

Dr Garcia-Perez added that the team now plan to use the diet analysis technology on people at risk of cardiovascular disease.

The researchers say this urine fingerprint can be used to develop an individuals personal score called the Dietary Metabotype Score, or DMS.

Same diet, different outcome

In their experiments, the team asked 19 people to follow four different diets ranging from very healthy (following 100 per cent of World Health Organisation recommendations for a balanced diet), to unhealthy (following 25 per cent WHO diet recommendations).

The team found that people who strictly followed the same diet had varied DMS scores. The teams work also revealed that the higher a persons DMS score, the healthier their diet. A higher DMS score was also found to be associated with lower blood sugar, and a higher amount of energy excreted from the body in urine.

The team found the difference between high energy urine (ie. high DMS score) and low energy urine (low DMS score) was equivalent to someone with a high DMS score losing an extra four calories a day, or 1,500 calories a year. The team calculate this could translate to a difference of 215g of body fat per year.

The next step is to investigate how a persons urine metabolite fingerprint may link to a persons risk of conditions such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure, Professor Gary Frost, co-author of the research and Chair in Nutrition and Dietetics at Imperial said: These findings bring a new and more in- depth understanding to how our bodies process and use food at the molecular level. The research brings

into question whether we should re-write food tables to incorporate these new metabolites that have biological effects in the body.

The work was funded by the National Institute for Health Research, the Medical Research Council and Health Data Research UK.


Dietary metabotype modelling predicts individual responses to dietary interventions. Nature Food.

Read more from the original source:
Five-minute urine test developed to reveal quality of diet - Express Healthcare

Jul 3

Journey to the Blue Zones – Gulfshore Life

By now, most of us are familiar with Blue Zones, a term that first appeared in a National Geographic story, in which Dan Buettner identified communities around the world where people routinely live long, healthy lives.

In the story, and in subsequent books, the journalist outlined core lifestyle habitswhat he called Power of 9 principlespresent among the people in the five places.

The concept evolved into the Blue Zones Project, with Buettner providing a template that towns, businesses and individuals could follow to implement the principlesfrom eating more veggies to cultivating friendships. Naples joined the cause in 2015, when NCH Healthcare System launched the Blue Zones Project of Southwest Florida and commited to create an environment that supports the balanced lifestyle.

Although the project isnt all about diet, Buettner recognizes food has a lot to do with how we feel and function. For most Americans, an entrance ramp for a new lifestyle change is through their mouth, he says.

While working on the blueprint for the project, Buettner revisited the original communities and walked away with the idea for a cookbook that goes beyond recipes. In The Blue Zones Kitchen: 100 Recipes to Live to 100, the author pulls back the curtain to reveal the people and places that inspired his work. I wanted to harness the culinary genius of the Blue Zones and let people taste what its like to live in these places. The result? A robust roadmap for balanced eating and an assortment of recipes that prove eating well doesnt have to mean compromising on flavor.

Waking up at dawn, men in Nicoya, Costa Rica, ride their horses to work in the verdant mountains of the Costa Rican peninsula, where they spend days tending to crops and livestock. To fuel up for the hard days work, they start the morning with a hefty serving of protein-packed gallo pinto (rice and beans), alongside a basket of from-scratch tortillas and a steaming cup of black coffee.

Buettner found a bustling, family-owned cafe in the mountains that served the traditional breakfast to locals for less than $5 per serving. In his book, he describes it as the worlds healthiest breakfast.

Thats because the author found that an ideal breakfast consists of protein (which repairs and rebuilds tissues and makes you feel full), complex carbs (for energy) and antioxidants (to protect your cells from disease).

While you might not be scaling mountains, youll find that a breakfast with those three components will sustain you throughout the day.

Not ready for beans in the morning? You can find a good source of protein and complex carbs in Ezekiel bread, which is made with four types of sprouted grains that provide all nine essential amino acids, which makes it a complete protein. Combine with antioxidant-rich blueberries.

In the remote island Ikaria, locals embrace a Mediterranean diet, relying on herbs like thyme and oregano to ramp up the flavor of foods like chickpeas, which are packed with nutrients but low on flavor. Were pretty good at putting chickpeas into hummus, but beyond that, people often dont know what to do with them, Buettner says.

Meanwhile, on the Greek island, he saw the possibilities were endless. He met one woman who crafted a pastry with a filling that he describes as transcendent, with chickpeas cooked in a broth with sage, rosemary and caramelized onionsall freshly picked.

Ikarians act as hunters and gatherers, searching the sides of the roads for herbs like fennel, parsley and chicory, and gathering sea salt from the coastal rocks. They also tend seasonal gardens for items, such as lemon and tomatoes.

The perks: Not only does gardening and foraging provide a good mental and physical boost, but most of the herbs, spices and veggies found in a Mediterranean diet also have anti-inflammatory benefits. Some also target other issues, such as digestion (rosemary) and stress (oregano).

Though it wouldnt hurt to start your own herb garden, stocking up on these prevalent foods is as easy as walking into your local grocery store.

If youre eating a standard American diet, its probably shaving about six to 10 years off of your life expectancy, Buettner says, adding that the problem is that in the U.S., the food thats most accessible is typically prepackaged and processed. Those meals are packed with added sugar and preservatives that wreak havoc on our health.

In Loma Linda, California, he met a close-knit community of Seventh-day Adventists who follow the Old Testaments teachings that say people should avoid animal products deemed unclean. Instead, they stick to whole plant foods, including vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts and seeds.

In most Blue Zones, meat is eaten in small amounts and typically reserved for special occasions, if its consumed at all. Buettner found that in Loma Linda, the Adventists who completely abstain from meat, tend to live longer and weigh about 20 pounds less than their Adventist peers who eat meat on occasion.

Skimping on meat doesnt have to equate to a radical change on the dishes you eat. In fact, Loma Linda dinner tables look a lot like many other Americans, with vegetarian twists on classic dishes, like No-Meat Balls and Sweet Potato Black Bean Burgers. Even if youre having an animal-based meal, you can just add some of these things like fresh vegetables and beans onto your plateits a transition, says Deb Logan, the executive director of the Blue Zones Project of Southwest Florida.

Every Friday generations of Sardinian women gather in a small neighborhood house dedicated to making bread. The eldest brings the starter dough, which has been in her family for hundreds of years, and together the women make loaves of bread and pasta to bring home for their families. They spend the afternoon socializing around this great activity, the whole time theyre talking and relieving stress, Buettner says.

The community focuses specifically on sourdough, which the author recognized as a staple in diets across the five Blue Zones. That may be because its unique fermentation process makes it more nutritious and digestible than other breads. Plus, its said to have a lower glycemic index.

Another constant across the board? In every place, people gather to eat together.

In the States, Blue Zones fans have started creating Moais, a concept borrowed from Okinawaa Blue Zone in Japan. There, locals belong to these moais, or social support groups, which are formed at a young age and endure for life.

Lisa Gruenloh, director of development for NCH Healthcare Systems Center for Philanthropy, participated in a local Potluck Moai last summer, with about 100 other people who experimented with the recipes ahead of Buettners book release. Some of them stuck with it, branching out into smaller groups and checking in with each other periodically. A huge part of a Moai is to get people together, Gruenloh says. Its easier to stick with things when youre doing it with someone.

See the original post here:
Journey to the Blue Zones - Gulfshore Life

Jul 3

7 Myths and Facts About Hangovers – Everyday Health

Think youre one of the lucky people who never gets hangovers? You might want to think again. In all likelihood, most people who claim theyre immune to post-partying symptoms, such as headaches, nausea, stomach pains, and vomiting, probably just arent drinking enough to feel hungover the next day, suggests a review published in January 2018 in the journal Current Drug Abuse Reviews.

It proves the point that drinking in moderation or abstaining altogether is the best way to avoid a hangover. In fact, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), theres no proven way to cure a hangover; it just takes time for the body to recover.

Still, that hasnt stopped researchers and everyday imbibers from trying to learn how to lessen the effects of a night of too much drinking. Shaunessy Bishop-Stall, author of Hungover: The Morning After and One Mans Quest for the Cure, spent more than 10 years researching ways to prevent the aftereffects of overindulging in alcohol and trying them out himself.

Heres what science has to say about what might help ease the severity of a hangoverand what definitely wont work, no matter what your perceived propensity for hangovers.

Had a little too much to drink? Theres one concoction you might want to add to your post-party plan. A study published in April 2020 in the journal BMJ Nutrition, Prevention and Health found that people who took a combination of plant extracts such as prickly pear, ginkgo biloba, and gingerroot reported less severe hangover headaches and nausea than those who took a placebo or a supplement with nutrients such as magnesium and potassium. Remember to talk to your doctor before taking any kind of supplement.

Compared with lighter spirits, such as vodka, darker alcohol contains more compounds called congeners, which are produced during the fermentation process and can worsen the severity of a hangover, according to research published in November 2013 in the journal Current Drug Abuse Reviews. The study authors note that congener content can vary from spirit to spirit, but bourbon tends to contain particularly higher amounts.

Celebrating with some bubbly? You might want to sip that champagne slowly and in moderation. Two small studies, published in July 2003 and October 2007, found that carbonation may increase the rate of alcohol absorption, which could cause some people to become more intoxicated more quickly.

When it comes to supplements that have been shown to be effective in helping hangovers, vitamins B3 and zinc top the list. A small study published in August 2019 in the Journal of Clinical Medicine found that nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) and zinc significantly reduced hangover severity in 23 healthy social drinkers.

You may want to rethink that diet soda and rum and opt for regular cola instead. Thats because one small study published in April 2013 in the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Researchfound that people who downed vodka mixed with an artificially sweetened soft drink registered higher blood alcohol levels than those who had the same cocktail with sugar-sweetened soda. The theory is that because the body treats sugar as food, drinking a diet beverage is similar to drinking on an empty stomach.

Not only will this be ineffective in preventing a hangover, but it may also be harmful. According to the NIAAA, taking acetaminophen with alcohol can cause liver damage. If you need to take something for your hangover headache, you can try aspirin or ibuprofen, but keep in mind that they can increase the amount of acid in your stomach and irritate the lining. Just dont make it a regular practice, and dont take it preventively.

Some people believe downing an electrolyte-infused sports drink before bed can prevent a hangover, says Bishop-Stall. The NIAAA says theres little evidence that this is effective.

Electrolytes sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, magnesium are minerals in your blood, urine, tissues, and other bodily fluids that have an electric charge. They help move nutrients into and waste out of your cells and ensure your nerves, muscles, heart, and brain work properly. Dehydration, which can happen when you drink alcohol, can throw the levels of electrolytes out of whack.

Contrary to the commonly held belief that drinking electrolytes may help reduce the severity of hangovers, research has increasingly shown thats not the case. The BMJ Nutrition, Prevention, and Health article found that drinking a supplement of vitamins and minerals, including magnesium and potassium, was not effective in improving peoples hangover symptoms.

Additional reporting by Katherine Lee

Read more from the original source:
7 Myths and Facts About Hangovers - Everyday Health

Jul 3

22-Year-Old Vegan Chef Starts Project to Support Black-Led Vegan Events, Pop-ups, and Entrepreneurs in Minneapolis – VegNews

Vegan chef and entrepreneur Mykela Jackson recently launched an initiative to support Black-owned vegan businesses and entrepreneurs in creating community events in Minneapolis that focus on the enrichments of Black communities. Jacksons goal is to work collectively with other Black vegan entrepreneurs to create accessible and sustainable food systems in Black neighborhoods, specifically in Northside Minneapolis. The 22-year-old founder of Keikos Kitchen and Keikos Electric Herbs has so far raised more than $5,00025 percent of her goalthrough a GoFundMe campaign to fund the initiative. She has also created a group, the Black Enrichment Collective, to plan and organize events. The first event is being planned for the end of July to teach the community about the plant-based diet, sustainable food systems, and holistic health and wellness.

My mission has always been to inform my people on the benefits of an alkaline plant-based diet and redefine the term plant-based because the vegan community hasnt been entirely welcoming, Jackson told VegNews. Theres always been a Black-led plant-based movement happening in Minneapolis; we just havent had the support to make things happen. Now is the time. Black revolutions need to be led by Black people, and its time to make way for that.

As part of the initiative, Jackson also hopes to create co-op spaces in low-income neighborhoods that provide essential food resources. This project will take a lot of capital, so we invite white-led organizations to hit pause on business-as-usual and reinvest their time and resources in defense of Black lives, Jackson said. These funds are going to create generational wealth and stability to many families in the very near future.

Please support independent vegan media and get the very best in news, recipes, travel, beauty, products, and more.Subscribe now to the worlds #1 plant-based magazine!

Read the original:
22-Year-Old Vegan Chef Starts Project to Support Black-Led Vegan Events, Pop-ups, and Entrepreneurs in Minneapolis - VegNews

Jul 3

Exploring Claims of Milk’s Protection Against COVID-19 | The Heart of the Farm is the Family – Lancaster Farming

In the current era of the COVID-19 pandemic, we are bombarded by media coverage about the numbers of COVID-19 cases, how governments are handling the outbreak, ways to protect yourself from contracting coronavirus, and even potential remedies. One such claim floating around social media is that cows milk can protect you from coronavirus.

While milk can be a part of a healthy, varied diet, the claims that it can prevent or cure coronavirus are unfounded and potentially dangerous. The basis of these claims seems to be based on two immune-supporting components found in milk: lactoferrin and vitamin D.

Claims Explained

Lactoferrin is a protein found in most secretions from mammals and is especially high in milk. This protein has some antimicrobial properties and research suggests that the transfer of lactoferrin from mother to baby via breastmilk might provide some immune support to the infants still-developing immune system. While concentrated lactoferrin is promoted as a dietary supplement in foods such as infant formulas, there is no evidence to suggest that the lactoferrin found in cows milk imparts any specific immune benefits to humans who drink it.

The second component of milk that is being suggested as beneficial is vitamin D. In the U.S., milk is fortified with vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin associated with many functions in the body, including growth and immune response. The claim that the vitamin D in milk somehow protects against coronavirus appears to be based on a meta-analysis published in 2017 in the British Medical Journal which found that vitamin D supplementation decreased the risk of acute respiratory infection. Its important to note that this study investigated vitamin D supplementation at much higher doses than what is found in milk products. It also did not include COVID-19 in its definition of acute respiratory infection. In both cases, the suggestion seems to be that by consuming milk you are providing your body with specific immunity from the virus.

Immunity vs. Immune System

It is important to note that consuming foods which support your immune system does not mean that you have immunity from a specific bacteria or virus. Immunity means that your body has been exposed to specific pathogens and now has antibodies that know how to defeat the disease; this is how vaccines work. Strengthening your immune system on the other hand, does not mean that you will not become infected by a specific disease, but you might be better able to fight it off if you do contract it. As always, the best way to strengthen your immune system is to choose a healthy lifestyle, which includes eating a varied diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy and proteins, drinking enough of water, getting adequate sleep, exercising, avoiding smoking and excessive stress.

Milk as Part of a Healthy Diet

While milk may not impart specific immune benefits to ward off COVID-19, it can be part of a healthy diet that will optimize your health and your bodys readiness to fight off infections of any kind.

In addition to the components listed above, milk also contains vitamin A, which helps with vision and skin health; calcium, which helps maintain bone strength and aids in the absorption of vitamin D; B vitamins important for energy metabolism and several essential minerals.

Milk is also a good source of protein. Whole milk can be a nutritious source of calories for young children (ages 1-2 years). The components listed above can also be found from other food sources such as fatty fish, liver, nuts, dark green leafy vegetables and fortified cereals. By choosing a varied diet with minimally processed foods you have the best opportunity to ensure you are consuming all essential nutrients in adequate quantities.

Shopping for Milk

When shopping for milk, consumers will find a sell by date stamped on the bottle. This is not the day the milk should be poured down the drain. This is the last date the grocery store can sell the bottle of milk. The sell-by date is designed to give consumers time to use the product at home before it goes bad. Typically, milk stays fresh for five-10 days past the sell-by date.

Factors for spoilage include exposure to light, heat, packaging type, and whether the container was opened or not. Storing the milk in the refrigerator (and not on the counter while the kids eat their cereal) and keeping the cap clean help to make the milk stay fresh longer. If milk has a sour smell or flavor, it isnt necessarily going to make you sick; it just wont be appetizing. Once opened, milk should be consumed within seven days.

If the milk shelf is empty in your grocery store, you might wonder to yourself if you should stop by a local dairy farm on the way home. Milk sold in the grocery store has been pasteurized, meaning it has been quickly heated for a specific amount of time to kill bacteria that can make people sick when the milk is consumed. Some farms pasteurize, bottle, and sell milk on-site directly to consumers. Visiting one of these farms is a great way to support your local dairy farmer. You can also support the Pennsylvania dairy industry when you buy milk at your grocery store. If the plant code on the milk container begins with the number 42, the milk has been bottled at a Pennsylvania plant.

In Pennsylvania, farms must have a permit to sell raw milk directly to a consumer, and most dairy farms do not hold that permit. Raw milk means that the milk has not gone through the pasteurization step to ensure safety. Farms that are permitted to sell raw milk to consumers are required to have their milk tested on a set schedule. Each batch of raw milk is not tested; testing gives a general idea of sanitation on the farm.

Individuals with weakened immune systems, young children, pregnant women, and senior citizens are at higher risk for becoming ill from eating or drinking contaminated food or drink.

The Best Defenses Against Coronavirus and False Information

The best defense against illness from COVID-19 is to follow the guidelines set forth by public health departments (Pennsylvania Department of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization). Wash your hands with soap and water often, use alcohol-based hand sanitizer when soap and water are not available, practice social distancing, wear a cloth face mask in areas where social distancing may be difficult (grocery store), and stay home when you arent feeling well.

For these claims and others that are sure to be spread by the well-intentioned, but misinformed, it is important to do your own research. Look at the source of the information. Reliable sources will come from a web address that ends in .gov, .edu or .int. If you see a post on social media and cannot trace it back to a reliable source, it is best to reach out to an expert before implementing the advice. The World Health Organization has a useful collection of Myth Busters specific to coronavirus. As always, you can reach out to your local Extension experts for advice on a variety of subjects.

Exploring Claims of Milk's Protection Against COVID-19 | The Heart of the Farm is the Family - Lancaster Farming

Jul 3

Hugh Jackman Just Shared Some of His Best Workout and Training Advice With Tim Ferriss –

During a recent interview on The Tim Ferriss Show, X-Men and The Greatest Showman star Hugh Jackman discussed what he's learned about fitness through years of putting on muscle to play characters like Wolverine and then leaning down for other roles.

The actor has previously spoken about how rowing is his exercise of choice when it comes to maintaining a lean physique, and on the podcast he explained to Ferriss why a rowing machine is pretty much the only piece of equipment he needs.

"There's a reason the rower's usually empty at the gymbecause it's difficult," he said. "And a lot of people want to say it and feel theyve worked out, and they want to get a sweat, but they don't necessarily And the rowing machineI think if you add in some chest work, some pushups, that's everything you need to keep fit, healthy, strong... It's such a good building exercise for deadlifts and all these core movements, compound movements, getting your scapulaeverything sort of in the right placeand your breathing and relaxing your neck, you know, at the same time as doing it."

Men's Health

Subscribe to Men's Health

The actor went on to sing the praises of his trainer, powerlifter and dancer Beth Lewis, and the "85 percent" approach, which originated in sprinting.

"It really is great for me because, I mean, in the past, even with someone like Wolverine, I have to prepare to look physically a way, but I can't get injured. So I can't prepare as a bodybuilder. I have to be able to prepare as a really jacked, ripped athlete-slash-dancer, because fighting is dance. It is more relaxation in a fight scene than there is strength, which is probably the case for, if you think about all the great athletes you see, there's relaxation, and then movement has moved in sports. That's why you see every sprinter poking their tongue out now and dancing around with joy before they run the hundred meters. You know, that sense of having the right level of relaxation. I think that they call it the 85 percent rule. If you tell most, sort of, A-type athletes to run at their 85 percent capacity, they will run faster than if you tell them to run 100 because its more about relaxation and form and optimizing the muscles in the right way."

This content is imported from YouTube. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site.

That mindset, which allows athletes to be a bit more forgiving of their own performance and take the pressure off themselves, has also changed the way that Jackman motivates himself to train.

"If I was coaching me, myself, like if I was the coach and Hugh Jackman was on my team, I wouldnt put more pressure on him, push him more," he said. "I wouldnt yell at him, scream. Ive got that motivation. If anything, I have had to work from building up insecurity. So: Im not good enough. I need to work extra hard. If I do everything perfectly and I work my ass off, then Ill be OKthat kind of thing, which in the end does certainly limit your ability to enjoy life or enjoy the row or the show or anything like that. But it doesnt get the best out of you. It really doesnt. So I mentally, quite often during the day, just, before I do an activity, imagine that its done. That feeling I have when its done and gone well. And I go into it with that."

This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at

This commenting section is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page. You may be able to find more information on their web site.

More here:
Hugh Jackman Just Shared Some of His Best Workout and Training Advice With Tim Ferriss -

Jul 3

Dear Dietitian Are there healthier ways to eat fast food? – Kiowa County Press

Dear Readers: One day last week, I found myself busy during the lunch hour and didn't stop to eat until around 2 p.m. I went to a fast-food restaurant, ordered a small sandwich, medium fries, and a diet soda. It wasn't until later that I realized the moderate-size meal I had consumed contained nearly 800 calories! Holy mackerel! The fries were delicious, but was it worth it?

By now, you've noticed certain restaurants have added calorie counts to their menu items. Although some restaurants began early, as of May 7, 2018, the FDA required calories to be listed on the menus and menu boards of restaurants that are part of a chain of 20 or more locations. The reasoning behind this is so that consumers can make informed choices.

It is estimated that Americans eat one-third of their meals away from home. While fast food is a convenient and relatively inexpensive option, the calories add up quickly. Instead of getting more for our dollar, we get more around the waistline. Increased calories lead to weight gain, and obesity is one of the leading contributors to diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and possibly some types of cancer.

Is the implementation of calorie counts making a difference? The studies are mixed, but overall, the answer seems to be, "Definitely maybe." In a study published in the British Medical Journal, more than 242 million food transactions were evaluated over three years. The data was collected in fast-food restaurants in the southern United States. After calorie labeling, a decrease of 60 calories per transaction was observed. However, this was followed by an increase of 0.71 calories per transaction over the next year (1).

Particular subpopulations seem to use the calorie counts more effectively. Women, dieters, and people of higher income levels made healthier choices. The calorie labeling was more effective when a 2000 calorie-a-day recommendation was also posted.

At first glance, it seems the effect of calorie labeling would be easy to measure. People either ordered items with more calories or less, right? However, measuring the impact on society's health is much more complex. For example, after realizing how many calories they were consuming in fast food, some customers may quit going to those restaurants altogether. While this may be a healthy adjustment, it's difficult to measure its impact on public health.

If you have to eat on the run, and fast food is a convenient option, follow these guidelines so you won't blow your health plan:

The implementation of calorie counts on menus may not solve the obesity problem in America, but it's a step in the right direction. Increased awareness and education are vital keys in making healthier choices.

Until next time, be healthy!

Dear Dietitian

Leanne McCrate, RDN, LD, CNSC, aka Dear Dietitian, is based in Missouri. Her mission is to educate the public on sound, scientifically-based nutrition. Do you have a nutrition question? Email her today at Dear Dietitian does not endorse any products, health programs, or diet plans.

Visit link:
Dear Dietitian Are there healthier ways to eat fast food? - Kiowa County Press

Jul 3

Skeletons from a Ridgefield basement wait to tell their story – The Ridgefield Press

Tania Grgurich, Clinical Associate Professor of Diagnostic Imagining, places a human skull, seen here covered by a cloth, into position in preparation of a CT Scan at Quinnipiac Universitys School of Health Science, in North Haven on Jan. 3. Quinnipiac is taking diagnostic imaging of the skeletal remains of three humans found recently buried during the renovation of an 18th century house in Ridgefield.

Tania Grgurich, Clinical Associate Professor of Diagnostic Imagining, places a human skull, seen here covered by a cloth, into position in preparation of a CT Scan at Quinnipiac Universitys School of Health

Photo: Ned Gerard / Hearst Connecticut Media

Tania Grgurich, Clinical Associate Professor of Diagnostic Imagining, places a human skull, seen here covered by a cloth, into position in preparation of a CT Scan at Quinnipiac Universitys School of Health Science, in North Haven on Jan. 3. Quinnipiac is taking diagnostic imaging of the skeletal remains of three humans found recently buried during the renovation of an 18th century house in Ridgefield.

Tania Grgurich, Clinical Associate Professor of Diagnostic Imagining, places a human skull, seen here covered by a cloth, into position in preparation of a CT Scan at Quinnipiac Universitys School of Health

Skeletons from a Ridgefield basement wait to tell their story

As American independence is celebrated on the Fourth of July, unearthed remains believed to be four soldiers who fought in the Revolutionary War sit awaiting studies suspended amid the COVID-19 pandemic that may determine which side they fought on.

The four skeletons were discovered late in 2019 during work in the basement of a house in an area of Ridgefield where colonial militia and British troops fought on April 27, 1777. The British were retreating from the burning of Danbury to ships waiting in Long Island Sound off what is now Compo Beach in Westport.

Nicholas Bellantoni, state archaeologist emeritus, oversaw the recovery of the skeletons from their shallow, seemingly hastily dug grave in a Ridgefield basement. The study of the skeletons has been paused by the closure of laboratories at the University of Connecticut and Yale University, where theyd been sent along with some 40 buttons found in the burial site.

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the laboratories at all the universities have been closed, Bellantoni said in a statement on Ridgefield Historical Societys website. ...The remains and the buttons are all in the laboratories and we are waiting for more work to be done.

"Hopefully the university labs will be able to reopen before too long and their research can continue, said Sara Champion, president of the Ridgefield Historical Society. Mr. Bellantoni affirmed that the skeletons will be returned to Ridgefield for reburial when the lab work is completed."

The discovery of the skeletons, announced back in December 2019, prompted a lot of speculation that they might be of historical interest.

Four adult men, lying in a common grave, Bellantoni said.

...Kind of thrown in, he said. ...They were very quickly buried it was a shallow grave even at that time.

The 40 buttons are believed to have been on clothing from two the four individuals who were buried at the site.

The buttons were being cleaned, and there had been speculation that some regimental insignia or other identification on them might help reveal the identities of the long-buried men. But this hasnt happened.

Regarding the buttons they have been unable to discover any insignia on them, Sara Champion, the historicla socieyt president, said. Apparently British forces had introduced insignia on their uniform buttons in 1776. However it is possible such buttons had not reached the troops in the Americas. Also the buttons appear to have been cloth covered.

The discovery of the skeletons led to the Ridgefield Historical Society being awarded a National Park Service: American Battlefield Protection Program grant of $50,150, to finance a two-year study project designed to develop a deeper understanding of the 1777 Battle of Ridgefield and its place in the history of the American Revolution.

We are thrilled that the National Park Service has recognized our efforts to preserve the history of the Battle of Ridgefield and, of course, we are anxious to know as much as possible about our skeletons, Historical Society President Sara Champion said when the grant was received.

Sharon Dunphy, first vice president of the historical society, is looking forward to starting the work on the grant.

Its going to be a fascinating project, she said.

Researchers are fairly confident and hopeful that the skeletons will prove to have histories that run back to the Revolution.

We came to realize very quickly these may very well be victims of the Battle of Ridgefield, which occurred in April 1777, Bellantoni said.

The questions raised are tantalizing to historians and archeologists.

Were they American militia, farmers coming off the fields to defend the town? Bellantoni said.

Or were they British soldiers coming from Danbury trying to pass through Ridgefield on their way back to the waiting ships in Long Island Sound?

Bellantoni believes there is a great deal yet to be learned about the battle, both from continuing studies of the skeletons and associated materials, as well as from the work supported by the Battlefield grant that the historical society has gotten to study the entire area where the battle took place.

There are many questions to look into.

Were the skeletons those of Patriots, or Loyalist colonials, or British troops? How did non-combatant Ridgefielders interact with the soldiers on the two sides of the battle? Who buried casualties from the battle? Where are the other soldiers that died in the battle buried?

Were hoping the bones themselves will tell us a great deal about these men, Bellantoni said.

This might include what he described as their degree of muscularity and approximate ages.

Carbon isotope analysis will help us understand the diets of these men, Bellantoni said. And what theyd eaten in their early lives, he said, could suggest whether they came from Europe or were American born and bred.

See the rest here:
Skeletons from a Ridgefield basement wait to tell their story - The Ridgefield Press

Jul 3

Eating healthy while working from home: Here are 5 tips to help you reduce consumption of junk food – Times Now

Eating healthy while working from home: Here are 5 tips to help you reduce consumption of junk food  |  Photo Credit: iStock Images

New Delhi: Work from home became common practice all around the world owing to the coronavirus pandemic as social distancing and staying at home became essential to reduce the spread of the virus. We saw people embrace the new normal by trying out new dishes in their kitchens and do things a little differently than they always have. However, as restaurants and takeaway joints were closed and people expected rise in healthy eating, the contrary actually became true. While people did eat home-cooked food, it involved junk, oily and fast food, manufactured in their own kitchen.

As months of the lockdown passed and as the majority of the workforce in the country continues to work from home, people realised that such eating habits may not be sustainable, and are leading to weight gain and other adverse health effects. However, as much as they try, they cannot give up unhealthy but tasty junk food. Therefore, here are some tips and tricks to help you reduce your consumption of junk food as you work from home.

Disclaimer: Tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information purposes only and should not be construed as professional medical advice. Always consult your doctor or a professional healthcare provider if you have any specific questions about any medical matter.

For full coverage on Coronavirus pandemic, click here.Join the Times Group initiative #MaskIndia.Share a picture with your home-made mask on your social handles using #MaskIndia. The best picture will be featured in TOI and on

See the original post here:
Eating healthy while working from home: Here are 5 tips to help you reduce consumption of junk food - Times Now

Page 11234..1020..»