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Jan 30

Exercise: How much do I need every day? – Mayo Clinic

For most healthy adults, the Department of Health and Human Services recommends these exercise guidelines:

Moderate aerobic exercise includes activities such as brisk walking, biking, swimming and mowing the lawn. Vigorous aerobic exercise includes activities such as running, heavy yard work and aerobic dancing. Strength training can include use of weight machines, your own body weight, heavy bags, resistance tubing or resistance paddles in the water, or activities such as rock climbing.

As a general goal, aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity every day. If you want to lose weight, maintain weight loss or meet specific fitness goals, you may need to exercise more.

Reducing sitting time is important, too. The more hours you sit each day, the higher your risk of metabolic problems. Sitting too much can negatively impact your health and longevity, even if you get the recommended amount of daily physical activity. And some research has found that people who've lost weight may be more likely to keep off the lost weight by sitting less during the day.

Short on long chunks of time? Even brief bouts of activity offer benefits. For instance, if you can't fit in one 30-minute walk during the day, try a few five-minute walks instead. Any activity is better than none at all. What's most important is making regular physical activity part of your lifestyle.

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Exercise: How much do I need every day? - Mayo Clinic

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Jan 30

Exercise: Health benefits, types, and how it works – Medical News Today

Exercise involves engaging in physical activity and increasing the heart rate beyond resting levels. It is an important part of preserving physical and mental health.

Whether people engage in light exercise, such as going for a walk, or high intensity activities, for example, uphill cycling or weight training, regular exercise provides a huge range of benefits for the body and mind.

Taking part in exercise of any intensity every day is essential for preventing a range of diseases and other health issues.

In this article, we explain the different types of exercise and their benefits, as well as the considerations for designing a fitness regime.

People divide exercise into three broad categories:

We describe each of these categories below.

Aerobic exercise aims to improve how the body uses oxygen. Most aerobic exercise takes place at average levels of intensity over longer periods.

An aerobic exercise session involves warming up, exercising for at least 20 minutes, and then cooling down. Aerobic exercise mostly uses large muscle groups.

Aerobic exercise provides the following benefits:

Anaerobic exercise does not use oxygen for energy. People use this type of exercise to build power, strength, and muscle mass.

These exercises are high-intensity activities that should last no longer than around 2 minutes. Anaerobic exercises include:

While all exercise benefits the heart and lungs, anaerobic exercise provides fewer benefits for cardiovascular health than aerobic exercise and uses fewer calories. However, it is more effective than aerobic exercise for building muscle and improving strength.

Increasing muscle mass causes the body to burn more fat, even when resting. Muscle is the most efficient tissue for burning fat in the body.

Agility training aims to improve a persons ability to maintain control while speeding up, slowing down, and changing direction.

In tennis, for example, agility training helps a player maintain control over their court positioning through good recovery after each shot.

People who take part in sports that heavily rely on positioning, coordination, speed, and balance need to engage in agility training regularly.

The following sports are examples of ones that require agility:

Some exercises combine stretching, muscle conditioning, and balance training. A popular and effective example is yoga.

Yoga movements improve balance, flexibility, posture, and circulation.

The practice originated in India thousands of years ago and aims to unify the mind, body, and spirit. Modern yoga uses a combination of meditation, posture, and breathing exercises to achieve the same goals.

A yoga practitioner can tailor a course for individual needs.

A person looking to manage arthritis might need gentle stretches to improve mobility and function. Someone with depression, on the other hand, may need more emphasis on the relaxation and deep breathing elements of yoga.

Pilates is another stretching option that promotes flexibility and core strength. Tai chi is also an effective option for exercise that promotes calm stretching rather than intensity.

Here, learn more about yoga.

A sedentary lifestyle can increase the risk of the following health problems:

It can also contribute to an increased risk of premature death from all causes, including the complications of being overweight and obesity.

In many parts of the world, including the United States, the number of overweight and obese people continues to increase rapidly.

According to the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, that researchers did in 20132014 across the U.S., more than 2 in 3 adults are overweight or obesity.

The same survey found that around 1 in 13 adults have extreme obesity and face an increased risk of severe health complications.

Discover how to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Fitting exercise into a busy schedule can be a roadblock to a successful regime. However, people do not need to dedicate large amounts of extra time to exercise to see the benefits.

Here are some tips for fitting physical activity in a busy schedule:

People will likely gain the most benefit from exercises they enjoy that fit their lifestyle.

Exercise is sometimes a gradual learning curve. A person should spread sessions across the week and scale up the intensity slowly.

It is important for people to ensure they drink plenty of water during and after exercise. Checking with a doctor is a good precaution to take if someone has a health condition or injury that could impact exercise levels, or that exercise could make worse.

While a combination of aerobic and anaerobic exercise provides the most benefit, any exercise is better than none for people who currently have an inactive lifestyle.

Current U.S. guidelines recommend that people do one of the following:

Toward these goals, it is worth remembering that even 10-minute bursts of physical activity during the day provide health benefits.

Exercise may be difficult to maintain for some people. Consider the following tips to achieve long-term success:

The benefits of regular physical activity are wide-reaching and should form a part of every persons day to help them remain healthy.

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Exercise: Health benefits, types, and how it works - Medical News Today

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Jan 30

The Top 10 Benefits of Regular Exercise – Healthline

Exercise is defined as any movement that makes your muscles work and requires your body to burn calories.

There are many types of physical activity, including swimming, running, jogging, walking, and dancing, to name a few.

Being active has been shown to have many health benefits, both physically and mentally. It may even help you live longer (1).

Here are the top 10 ways regular exercise benefits your body and brain.

Exercise has been shown to improve your mood and decrease feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress (2).

It produces changes in the parts of the brain that regulate stress and anxiety. It can also increase brain sensitivity to the hormones serotonin and norepinephrine, which relieve feelings of depression (3).

Additionally, exercise can increase the production of endorphins, which are known to help produce positive feelings and reduce the perception of pain (3).

Interestingly, it doesnt matter how intense your workout is. It seems that exercise can benefit your mood no matter the intensity of the physical activity.

In fact, in a study in 24 women diagnosed with depression, exercise of any intensity significantly decreased feelings of depression (4).

The effects of exercise on mood are so powerful that choosing to exercise (or not) even makes a difference over short periods of time.

One review of 19 studies found that active people who stopped exercising regularly experienced significant increases in symptoms of depression and anxiety, even after only a few weeks (5).

Exercising regularly can improve your mood and reduce feelings of anxiety and depression.

Some studies have shown that inactivity is a major factor in weight gain and obesity (6, 7).

To understand the effect of exercise on weight reduction, it is important to understand the relationship between exercise and energy expenditure (spending).

Your body spends energy in three ways:

While dieting, a reduced calorie intake will lower your metabolic rate, which can temporarily delay weight loss. On the contrary, regular exercise has been shown to increase your metabolic rate, which can burn more calories to help you lose weight (6, 7, 8).

Additionally, studies have shown that combining aerobic exercise with resistance training can maximize fat loss and muscle mass maintenance, which is essential for keeping the weight off and maintaining lean muscle mass (9, 10, 11).

Exercise is crucial to supporting a healthy metabolism and burning more calories per day. It also helps you maintain your muscle mass and weight loss.

Exercise plays a vital role in building and maintaining strong muscles and bones.

Activities like weightlifting can stimulate muscle building when paired with adequate protein intake.

This is because exercise helps release hormones that promote your muscles ability to absorb amino acids. This helps them grow and reduces their breakdown (12, 13).

As people age, they tend to lose muscle mass and function, which can lead to an increased risk of injury. Practicing regular physical activity is essential to reducing muscle loss and maintaining strength as you age (14).

Exercise also helps build bone density when youre younger, in addition to helping prevent osteoporosis later in life (15).

Some research suggests that high impact exercise (such as gymnastics or running) or odd impact sports (such as soccer and basketball) may help promote a higher bone density than no impact sports like swimming and cycling (16).

Physical activity helps you build muscles and strong bones. It may also help prevent osteoporosis.

Exercise can be a real energy booster for many people, including those with various medical conditions (17, 18).

One older study found that 6 weeks of regular exercise reduced feelings of fatigue for 36 people who had reported persistent fatigue (19).

And lets not forget the fantastic heart and lung health benefits of exercise. Aerobic exercise boosts the cardiovascular system and improves lung health, which can significantly help with energy levels.

As you move more, your heart pumps more blood, delivering more oxygen to your working muscles. With regular exercise, your heart becomes more efficient and adept at moving oxygen into your blood, making your muscles more efficient (20).

Over time, this aerobic training results in less demand on your lungs, and it requires less energy to perform the same activities one of the reasons youre less likely to get short of breath during vigorous activity (21).

Additionally, exercise has been shown to increase energy levels in people with other conditions, such as cancer (22).

Engaging in regular physical activity can increase your energy levels.

Lack of regular physical activity is a primary cause of chronic disease (23).

Regular exercise has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, heart health, and body composition. It can also decrease blood pressure and cholesterol levels (24, 25, 26, 27).

More specifically, exercise can help reduce or prevent the following chronic health conditions.

In contrast, a lack of regular exercise even in the short term can lead to significant increases in belly fat, which may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease (23).

Thats why regular physical activity is recommended to reduce belly fat and decrease the risk of developing these conditions (33).

Daily physical activity is essential to maintaining a healthy weight and reducing the risk of chronic disease.

Your skin can be affected by the amount of oxidative stress in your body.

Oxidative stress occurs when the bodys antioxidant defenses cannot completely repair the cell damage caused by compounds known as free radicals. This can damage the structure of the cells and negatively impact your skin.

Even though intense and exhaustive physical activity can contribute to oxidative damage, regular moderate exercise can actually increase your bodys production of natural antioxidants, which help protect cells (34, 35).

In the same way, exercise can stimulate blood flow and induce skin cell adaptations that can help delay the appearance of skin aging (36).

Moderate exercise can provide antioxidant protection and promote blood flow, which can protect your skin and delay signs of aging.

Exercise can improve brain function and protect memory and thinking skills.

To begin with, it increases your heart rate, which promotes the flow of blood and oxygen to your brain. It can also stimulate the production of hormones that enhance the growth of brain cells.

Plus, the ability of exercise to prevent chronic disease can translate into benefits for your brain, since its function can be affected by these conditions (37).

Regular physical activity is especially important in older adults since aging combined with oxidative stress and inflammation promotes changes in brain structure and function (38, 39).

Exercise has been shown to cause the hippocampus, a part of the brain thats vital for memory and learning, to grow in size, which may help improve mental function in older adults (38, 39, 40).

Lastly, exercise has been shown to reduce changes in the brain that can contribute to conditions like Alzheimers disease and dementia (41).

Regular exercise improves blood flow to the brain and helps brain health and memory. Among older adults, it can help protect mental function.

Regular exercise can help you relax and sleep better (42, 43).

With regard to sleep quality, the energy depletion (loss) that occurs during exercise stimulates restorative processes during sleep (44).

Moreover, the increase in body temperature that occurs during exercise is thought to improve sleep quality by helping body temperature drop during sleep (45).

Many studies on the effects of exercise on sleep have reached similar conclusions.

One review of six studies found that participating in an exercise training program helped improve self-reported sleep quality and reduced sleep latency, which is the amount of time it takes to fall asleep (46).

One study conducted over 4 months found that both stretching and resistance exercise led to improvements in sleep for people with chronic insomnia (47).

Getting back to sleep after waking, sleep duration, and sleep quality improved after both stretching and resistance exercise. Anxiety was also reduced in the stretching group (47).

Whats more, engaging in regular exercise seems to benefit older adults, who are often affected by sleep disorders (48, 49).

You can be flexible with the kind of exercise you choose. It appears that either aerobic exercise alone or aerobic exercise combined with resistance training can both improve sleep quality (50).

Regular physical activity, regardless of whether it is aerobic or a combination of aerobic and resistance training, can help you sleep better and feel more energized during the day.

Although chronic pain can be debilitating, exercise can actually help reduce it (51).

In fact, for many years, the recommendation for treating chronic pain was rest and inactivity. However, recent studies show that exercise helps relieve chronic pain (52).

In fact, one review of several studies found that exercise can help those with chronic pain reduce their pain and improve their quality of life (52).

Several studies also show that exercise can help control pain associated with various health conditions, including chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic soft tissue shoulder disorder, to name a few (52).

Additionally, physical activity can also raise pain tolerance and decrease pain perception (53, 54).

Exercise has favorable effects on the pain associated with various conditions. It can also increase pain tolerance.

Exercise has been proven to boost sex drive (55, 56, 57).

Engaging in regular exercise can strengthen the heart, improve blood circulation, tone muscles, and enhance flexibility, all of which can improve your sex life (56).

Physical activity can also improve sexual performance and sexual pleasure while increasing the frequency of sexual activity (56, 58).

Interestingly enough, one study showed that regular exercise was associated with increased sexual function and desire in 405 postmenopausal women (59).

A review of 10 studies also found that exercising for at least 160 minutes per week over a 6-month period could help significantly improve erectile function in men (57).

Whats more, another study found that a simple routine of a 6-minute walk around the house helped 41 men reduce their erectile dysfunction symptoms by 71% (60).

Yet another study demonstrated that women with polycystic ovary syndrome, which can reduce sex drive, increased their sex drive with regular resistance training for 16 weeks (61).

Exercise can help improve sexual desire, function, and performance in men and women. It can also help decrease the risk of erectile dysfunction in men.

Exercise offers incredible benefits that can improve nearly every aspect of your health. Regular physical activity can increase the production of hormones that make you feel happier and help you sleep better.

It can also:

And it doesnt take much movement to make a big difference in your health.

If you aim for 150 to 300 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity each week or 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity spread throughout the week, youll meet the Department of Health and Human Services activity guidelines for adults (62).

Moderate intensity aerobic activity is anything that gets your heart beating faster, like walking, cycling, or swimming. Activities like running or participating in a strenuous fitness class count for vigorous intensity.

Throw in at least 2 days of muscle-strengthening activities involving all major muscle groups (legs, hips, back abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms), and youll exceed the recommendations.

You can use weights, resistance bands, or your bodyweight to perform muscle-strengthening exercises. These include squats, push-ups, shoulder press, chest, press, and planks.

Whether you practice a specific sport or follow the guideline of 150 minutes of activity per week, you can inevitably improve your health in many ways (55).

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The Top 10 Benefits of Regular Exercise - Healthline

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Jan 30

Exercise – Wikipedia

Bodily activity that assists health

Exercise is a body activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.[1]

It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, develop muscles and the cardiovascular system, hone athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improve health,[2] or simply for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and improve well-being as well as mental health.[3][4]

In terms of health benefits, the amount of recommended exercise depends upon the goal, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even doing a small amount of exercise is healthier than doing none.[5]

Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:[6]

Physical exercise can also include training that focuses on accuracy, agility, power, and speed.[10]

Types of exercise can also be classified as dynamic or static. 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow. Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly, albeit transiently, during the performance of the exercise.[11]

Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute to maintaining a healthy weight, regulating the digestive system, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. Some studies indicate that exercise may increase life expectancy and the overall quality of life.[12] People who participate in moderate to high levels of physical exercise have a lower mortality rate compared to individuals who by comparison are not physically active.[13] Moderate levels of exercise have been correlated with preventing aging by reducing inflammatory potential.[14] The majority of the benefits from exercise are achieved with around 3500 metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week, with diminishing returns at higher levels of activity.[15] For example, climbing stairs 10 minutes, vacuuming 15 minutes, gardening 20 minutes, running 20 minutes, and walking or bicycling for transportation 25 minutes on a daily basis would together achieve about 3000 MET minutes a week.[15] A lack of physical activity causes approximately 6% of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% of type 2 diabetes, 10% of breast cancer and 10% of colon cancer worldwide.[16] Overall, physical inactivity causes 9% of premature mortality worldwide.[16]

Most people can increase fitness by increasing physical activity levels.[17] Increases in muscle size from resistance training are primarily determined by diet and testosterone.[18] This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population.[19][20] There is evidence that exercising in middle age may lead to better physical ability later in life.[21]

Early motor skills and development is also related to physical activity and performance later in life. Children who are more proficient with motor skills early on are more inclined to be physically active, and thus tend to perform well in sports and have better fitness levels. Early motor proficiency has a positive correlation to childhood physical activity and fitness levels, while less proficiency in motor skills results in a more sedentary lifestyle.[22]

The type and intensity of physical activity performed may have an effect on a person's fitness level. There is some weak evidence that high-intensity interval training may improve a person's VO2 max slightly more than lower intensity endurance training.[23] However, unscientific fitness methods could lead to sports injuries.[24]

The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented. There is a direct correlation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular disease, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. Low levels of physical exercise increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases mortality.[25][26]

Children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness.[27] Studies have shown that academic stress in youth increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in later years; however, these risks can be greatly decreased with regular physical exercise.[28]

There is a dose-response relationship between the amount of exercise performed from approximately 7002000kcal of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly men. The greatest potential for reduced mortality is seen in sedentary individuals who become moderately active.

Studies have shown that since heart disease is the leading cause of death in women, regular exercise in aging women leads to healthier cardiovascular profiles.

Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (4060% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age). Persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival. Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.[29] According to the American Heart Association, exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke.[26]

Some have suggested that increases in physical exercise might decrease healthcare costs, increase the rate of job attendance, as well as increase the amount of effort women put into their jobs.[30]

Although there have been hundreds of studies on physical exercise and the immune system, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness.[31] Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system; an effect which is modeled in a J curve. Moderate exercise has been associated with a 29% decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity exercise was associated with an increased risk of infection occurrence.[31] However, another study did not find the effect. Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and some studies have found that athletes are at a higher risk for infections. Studies have shown that strenuous stress for long durations, such as training for a marathon, can suppress the immune system by decreasing the concentration of lymphocytes.[32] The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are generally similar. Athletes may have a slightly elevated natural killer cell count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically significant.[31]

Vitamin C supplementation has been associated with a lower incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in marathon runners.[31]

Biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, which are associated with chronic diseases, are reduced in active individuals relative to sedentary individuals, and the positive effects of exercise may be due to its anti-inflammatory effects. In individuals with heart disease, exercise interventions lower blood levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, an important cardiovascular risk marker.[33] The depression in the immune system following acute bouts of exercise may be one of the mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory effect.[31]

A systematic review evaluated 45 studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and cancer survival rates. According to the review, "[there] was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancerspecific, and colon cancerspecific mortality. There is currently insufficient evidence regarding the association between physical activity and mortality for survivors of other cancers."[34] Evidence suggests that exercise may positively affect the quality of life in cancer survivors, including factors such as anxiety, self-esteem and emotional well-being.[35] For people with cancer undergoing active treatment, exercise may also have positive effects on health-related quality of life, such as fatigue and physical functioning.[36] This is likely to be more pronounced with higher intensity exercise.[36]

Exercise may contribute to a reduction of cancer-related fatigue in survivors of breast cancer.[37] Although there is only limited scientific evidence on the subject, people with cancer cachexia are encouraged to engage in physical exercise.[38] Due to various factors, some individuals with cancer cachexia have a limited capacity for physical exercise.[39][40] Compliance with prescribed exercise is low in individuals with cachexia and clinical trials of exercise in this population often have high drop-out rates.[39][40]

There is low-quality evidence for an effect of aerobic physical exercises on anxiety and serious adverse events in adults with hematological malignancies.[41] Aerobic physical exercise may result in little to no difference in the mortality, quality of life, or physical functioning.[41] These exercises may result in a slight reduction in depression and reduction in fatigue.[41]

The neurobiological effects of physical exercise are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure,[42] brain function, and cognition.[43][44][45][46] A large body of research in humans has demonstrated that consistent aerobic exercise (e.g., 30minutes every day) induces persistent improvements in certain cognitive functions, healthy alterations in gene expression in the brain, and beneficial forms of neuroplasticity and behavioral plasticity; some of these long-term effects include: increased neuron growth, increased neurological activity (e.g., c-Fos and BDNF signaling), improved stress coping, enhanced cognitive control of behavior, improved declarative, spatial, and working memory, and structural and functional improvements in brain structures and pathways associated with cognitive control and memory.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][excessive citations] The effects of exercise on cognition have important implications for improving academic performance in children and college students, improving adult productivity, preserving cognitive function in old age, preventing or treating certain neurological disorders, and improving overall quality of life.[43][53][54][55]

In healthy adults, aerobic exercise has been shown to induce transient effects on cognition after a single exercise session and persistent effects on cognition following regular exercise over the course of several months.[43][52][56] People who regularly perform an aerobic exercise (e.g., running, jogging, brisk walking, swimming, and cycling) have greater scores on neuropsychological function and performance tests that measure certain cognitive functions, such as attentional control, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, working memory updating and capacity, declarative memory, spatial memory, and information processing speed.[43][47][49][51][52][56][57][58][excessive citations] The transient effects of exercise on cognition include improvements in most executive functions (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, problem solving, and decision making) and information processing speed for a period of up to 2hours after exercising.[56]

Aerobic exercise induces short- and long-term effects on mood and emotional states by promoting positive affect, inhibiting negative affect, and decreasing the biological response to acute psychological stress.[56] Over the short-term, aerobic exercise functions as both an antidepressant and euphoriant,[59][60][61][62] whereas consistent exercise produces general improvements in mood and self-esteem.[63][64]

A number of medical reviews have indicated that exercise has a marked and persistent antidepressant effect in humans,[47][61][62][65][82][83] an effect believed to be mediated through enhanced BDNF signaling in the brain.[50][65] Several systematic reviews have analyzed the potential for physical exercise in the treatment of depressive disorders. The 2013 Cochrane Collaboration review on physical exercise for depression noted that, based upon limited evidence, it is more effective than a control intervention and comparable to psychological or antidepressant drug therapies.[82] Three subsequent 2014 systematic reviews that included the Cochrane review in their analysis concluded with similar findings: one indicated that physical exercise is effective as an adjunct treatment (i.e., treatments that are used together) with antidepressant medication;[65] the other two indicated that physical exercise has marked antidepressant effects and recommended the inclusion of physical activity as an adjunct treatment for mildmoderate depression and mental illness in general.[61][62] One systematic review noted that yoga may be effective in alleviating symptoms of prenatal depression.[84] Another review asserted that evidence from clinical trials supports the efficacy of physical exercise as a treatment for depression over a 24month period.[47] These benefits have also been noted in old age, with a review conducted in 2019 finding that exercise is an effective treatment for clinically diagnosed depression in older adults.[85]

Continuous aerobic exercise can induce a transient state of euphoria, colloquially known as a "runner's high" in distance running or a "rower's high" in crew, through the increased biosynthesis of at least three euphoriant neurochemicals: anandamide (an endocannabinoid),[87] -endorphin (an endogenous opioid),[88] and phenethylamine (a trace amine and amphetamine analog).[89][90][91]

Preliminary evidence from a 2012 review indicated that physical training for up to four months may increase sleep quality in adults over 40 years of age.[92] A 2010 review suggested that exercise generally improved sleep for most people, and may help with insomnia, but there is insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep.[93] A 2018 systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that exercise can improve sleep quality in people with insomnia.[94]

One 2013 study found that exercising improved sexual arousal problems related to antidepressant use.[95]

People who participate in physical exercise experience increased cardiovascular fitness.[medical citation needed]There is some level of concern about additional exposure to air pollution when exercising outdoors, especially near traffic.[96]

Resistance training and subsequent consumption of a protein-rich meal promotes muscle hypertrophy and gains in muscle strength by stimulating myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and inhibiting muscle protein breakdown (MPB).[97][98] The stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by resistance training occurs via phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and subsequent activation of mTORC1, which leads to protein biosynthesis in cellular ribosomes via phosphorylation of mTORC1's immediate targets (the p70S6 kinase and the translation repressor protein 4EBP1).[97][99] The suppression of muscle protein breakdown following food consumption occurs primarily via increases in plasma insulin.[97][100][101] Similarly, increased muscle protein synthesis (via activation of mTORC1) and suppressed muscle protein breakdown (via insulin-independent mechanisms) has also been shown to occur following ingestion of -hydroxy -methylbutyric acid.[97][100][101][102]

Aerobic exercise induces mitochondrial biogenesis and an increased capacity for oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria of skeletal muscle, which is one mechanism by which aerobic exercise enhances submaximal endurance performance.[103][97][104] These effects occur via an exercise-induced increase in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio, thereby triggering the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) which subsequently phosphorylates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis.[97][104][105]

Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.[119] Exercise reduces levels of cortisol, which causes many health problems, both physical and mental.[120] Endurance exercise before meals lowers blood glucose more than the same exercise after meals.[121] There is evidence that vigorous exercise (9095% of VO2 max) induces a greater degree of physiological cardiac hypertrophy than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 max), but it is unknown whether this has any effects on overall morbidity and/or mortality.[122] Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training). Ventricular hypertrophy, the thickening of the ventricular walls, is generally beneficial and healthy if it occurs in response to exercise.

The effects of physical exercise on the central nervous system are mediated in part by specific neurotrophic factor hormones that are released into the blood stream by muscles, including BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF.[123][124][125][126][127][128]

Community-wide and school campaigns are often used in an attempt to increase a population's level of physical activity. Studies to determine the effectiveness of these types of programs need to be interpreted cautiously as the results vary.[17] There is some evidence that certain types of exercise programmes for older adults, such as those involving gait, balance, co-ordination and functional tasks, can improve balance.[129] Following progressive resistance training, older adults also respond with improved physical function.[130] Brief interventions promoting physical activity may be cost-effective, however this evidence is weak and there are variations between studies.[131]

Environmental approaches appear promising: signs that encourage the use of stairs, as well as community campaigns, may increase exercise levels.[132] The city of Bogot, Colombia, for example, blocks off 113 kilometers (70mi) of roads on Sundays and holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise. Such pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases and to maintain a healthy BMI.[133][134]

Parents can promote physical activity by modelling healthy levels of physical activity or by encouraging physical activity.[135] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, children and adolescents should do 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day.[136] Implementing physical exercise in the school system and ensuring an environment in which children can reduce barriers to maintain a healthy lifestyle is essential.

The European Commission's Directorate-General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) has dedicated programs and funds for Health Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA) projects[137] within its Horizon 2020 and Erasmus+ program, as research showed that too many Europeans are not physically active enough. Financing is available for increased collaboration between players active in this field across the EU and around the world, the promotion of HEPA in the EU and its partner countries, and the European Sports Week. The DG EAC regularly publishes a Eurobarometer on sport and physical activity.

Worldwide there has been a large shift toward less physically demanding work.[138] This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor-saving technology in the home, and fewer active recreational pursuits.[138] Personal lifestyle changes, however, can correct the lack of physical exercise.[medical citation needed]

Research published in 2015 suggests that incorporating mindfulness into physical exercise interventions increases exercise adherence and self-efficacy, and also has positive effects both psychologically and physiologically.[139]

Exercising looks different in every country, as do the motivations behind exercising.[3] In some countries, people exercise primarily indoors (such as at home or health clubs), while in others, people primarily exercise outdoors. People may exercise for personal enjoyment, health and well-being, social interactions, competition or training, etc. These differences could potentially be attributed to a variety of reasons including geographic location and social tendencies.

In Colombia, for example, citizens value and celebrate the outdoor environments of their country. In many instances, they use outdoor activities as social gatherings to enjoy nature and their communities. In Bogot, Colombia, a 70-mile stretch of road known as the Ciclova is shut down each Sunday for bicyclists, runners, rollerbladers, skateboarders and other exercisers to work out and enjoy their surroundings.[143]

Similarly to Colombia, citizens of Cambodia tend to exercise socially outside. In this country, public gyms have become quite popular. People will congregate at these outdoor gyms not only to use the public facilities, but also to organize aerobics and dance sessions, which are open to the public.[144]

Sweden has also begun developing outdoor gyms, called utegym. These gyms are free to the public and are often placed in beautiful, picturesque environments. People will swim in rivers, use boats, and run through forests to stay healthy and enjoy the natural world around them. This works particularly well in Sweden due to its geographical location.[145]

Exercise in some areas of China, particularly among those who are retired, seems to be socially grounded. In the mornings, square dances are held in public parks; these gatherings may include Latin dancing, ballroom dancing, tango, or even the jitterbug. Dancing in public allows people to interact with those with whom they would not normally interact, allowing for both health and social benefits.[146]

These sociocultural variations in physical exercise show how people in different geographic locations and social climates have varying motivations and methods of exercising. Physical exercise can improve health and well-being, as well as enhance community ties and appreciation of natural beauty.[3]

Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients while providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise.[147]

Active recovery is recommended after participating in physical exercise because it removes lactate from the blood more quickly than inactive recovery. Removing lactate from circulation allows for an easy decline in body temperature, which can also benefit the immune system, as an individual may be vulnerable to minor illnesses if the body temperature drops too abruptly after physical exercise.[148]

Exercise has an effect on appetite, but whether it increases or decreases appetite varies from individual to individual, and is affected by the intensity and duration of the exercise.[149]

Excessive exercise or overtraining occurs when a person exceeds their body's ability to recover from strenuous exercise.[150]

The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity. Dating back to 65 BCE, it was Marcus Cicero, Roman politician and lawyer, who stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor."[151] Exercise was also seen to be valued later in history during the Early Middle Ages as a means of survival by the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe.[152]

More recently, exercise was regarded as a beneficial force in the 19th century. In 1858 Archibald MacLaren opened a gymnasium at the University of Oxford and instituted a training regimen for Major Frederick Hammersley and 12 non-commissioned officers.[153] This regimen was assimilated into the training of the British Army, which formed the Army Gymnastic Staff in 1860 and made sport an important part of military life.[154][155][156] Several mass exercise movements were started in the early twentieth century as well. The first and most significant of these in the UK was the Women's League of Health and Beauty, founded in 1930 by Mary Bagot Stack, that had 166,000 members in 1937.[157]

The link between physical health and exercise (or lack of it) was further established in 1949 and reported in 1953 by a team led by Jerry Morris.[158][159] Dr. Morris noted that men of similar social class and occupation (bus conductors versus bus drivers) had markedly different rates of heart attacks, depending on the level of exercise they got: bus drivers had a sedentary occupation and a higher incidence of heart disease, while bus conductors were forced to move continually and had a lower incidence of heart disease.[159]

Studies of animals indicate that physical activity may be more adaptable than changes in food intake to regulate energy balance.[160]

Mice having access to activity wheels engaged in voluntary exercise and increased their propensity to run as adults.[161] Artificial selection of mice exhibited significant heritability in voluntary exercise levels,[162] with "high-runner" breeds having enhanced aerobic capacity,[163] hippocampal neurogenesis,[164] and skeletal muscle morphology.[165]

The effects of exercise training appear to be heterogeneous across non-mammalian species. As examples, exercise training of salmon showed minor improvements of endurance,[166] and a forced swimming regimen of yellowtail amberjack and rainbow trout accelerated their growth rates and altered muscle morphology favorable for sustained swimming.[167][168] Crocodiles, alligators, and ducks showed elevated aerobic capacity following exercise training.[169][170][171] No effect of endurance training was found in most studies of lizards,[169][172] although one study did report a training effect.[173] In lizards, sprint training had no effect on maximal exercise capacity,[173] and muscular damage from over-training occurred following weeks of forced treadmill exercise.[172]

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Jan 30

Best online clearance deals at Walmart: Save up to 65% on tech, home, kitchen and more – CBS News

Best online clearance deals at Walmart: Save up to 65% on tech, home, kitchen and more  CBS News

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Jan 30

Algarve Keto Gummies Reviews (Truth Exposed 2023) Does It Really Work Or Scam? Read It First Before Buy – Outlook India

Algarve Keto Gummies Reviews (Truth Exposed 2023) Does It Really Work Or Scam? Read It First Before Buy  Outlook India

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Algarve Keto Gummies Reviews (Truth Exposed 2023) Does It Really Work Or Scam? Read It First Before Buy - Outlook India

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Jan 22

Lose Definition & Meaning | Britannica Dictionary

loses; lost /lst/ ; losing loses; lost /lst/ ; losing

Britannica Dictionary definition of LOSE

She's always losing her gloves.

Don't lose your keys.

Hold my hand: I don't want to lose you.

The police lost him in the crowd. [=the police were no longer able to find/see him after he went into the crowd]

The airline lost my luggage. [=my luggage did not arrive at the airport I flew into]

He lost the fly ball in the sun. [=he was unable to see the fly ball because he was looking toward the sun]

The letter was lost in the mail. [=it was sent but never delivered to the person it was addressed to]

[+ object]

lose a battle/game

She lost her bid for reelection. [=she failed to win the election; she was not reelected]

We lost the game by a score of 42.

He lost his title in the rematch.

She lost the lawsuit.

The team lost three games but won the next four.

[no object]

The team lost in the finals.

an athlete known for losing with grace

That horse always loses.

He hates to lose when money is involved.

How could she play that well and still lose?

lose an advantage

The country lost its independence 50 years ago.

The mayor is losing power/influence/support.

He is in danger of losing control of the company.

She lost control of the car and skidded off the road.

I was so angry that I lost control (of myself, of my temper) and yelled at them.

She didn't lose her job but she lost access to all confidential company materials.

The senator lost votes when he angered some of his supporters.

The religious community was losing its younger members.

He hasn't lost his sense of humor.

They had lost all hope of winning the title.

I don't want anything to eat. I've lost my appetite. [=I no longer feel hungry]

She began to lose confidence in herself. [=to feel less confident]

Try not to lose patience with the children.

The accident victim was rapidly losing blood.

I'm sorry I'm late. I lost track of the time. [=I failed to stay aware of the time; I did not realize that so much time had passed]

She lost her balance [=failed to keep her weight spread equally] and fell.

If you have nothing (else/left) to lose, you cannot make a situation worse by taking a risk. If you have a lot to lose or have too much to lose, you could make your situation much worse by taking a risk or doing something.

You might as well apply for the job. You have nothing to lose and everything to gain.

Some of them are married and have young childrenthey have a lot to lose.

I can't quit now. I have too much to lose.

[+ object]

They lost all their money/savings in a poor investment.

The company has been losing money for the past several years. [=it has been spending more money than it has been earning]

[no object]

We lost (electrical) power during the storm.

He lost an arm in the war. [=one of his arms was destroyed or so badly injured that it had to be removed]

They lost everything in the fire. [=all their possessions were destroyed in the fire]

He yelled so much during the game that he lost his voice [=he was unable to speak] for two days.

Many people who lose weight by dieting eventually gain the weight back.

She has been losing strength in her legs.

He was gradually losing his eyesight.

He's losing his hair. [=becoming bald]

The public seems to have lost interest in the case.

[+ object]

The TV program has lost popularity [=become less popular] in recent years.

The plane was losing altitude.

What will you do if the company's stock loses value when you expect it to gain value?

[no object]

[+ object]

She lost her husband in the war. [=her husband was killed in the war]

He lost his best friend to cancer. [=his best friend died of cancer]

The country lost thousands of young men in/during the war. = Thousands of young men were lost [=killed] in/during the war. = Thousands of young men lost their lives in/during the war.

She's very sick, and the doctors say they're afraid they're going to lose her. [=they're afraid that she is going to die]

I was sad to hear that she lost the baby. [=that her baby died before being born or soon after being born]

a sailor who was lost at sea [=who died at sea]

He lost his temper/cool/composure. [=he became angry]

She wondered if she was losing her mind/sanity. [=becoming insane]

He seems to be losing his nerve. [=becoming afraid]

[+ object]

I don't want to lose this chance/opportunity.

We lost (a good bit of) time in that traffic jam.

She lost no time in getting the project started. [=she got the project started immediately]

We need to get started immediately. There's no time to lose.

[+ object]

[no object]

I'm sorry. You've lost me. [=I don't understand what you're telling me]

I understood the first part of the lecture, but when he started to talk about quantum physics he lost me completely. [=I was completely unable to understand what he was saying]

I just can't seem to lose this cold.

Lose the attitude, okay? [=stop having a bad attitude; stop being annoyed, uncooperative, etc.]

You can lose [=remove] that sentence and the paragraph will sound better.

lose it informal

lose out [phrasal verb]

If you don't invest with us, you'll be losing out on a great opportunity! [=you'll be missing/wasting a great opportunity]

She lost out to a better-known actress for the lead role. [=she did not get the lead role because a better-known actress got it]

lose sleep over

lose the plot

lose your grip

lose your head

lose your heart

lose your life

lose your lunch

lose your marbles

lose yourself

lose your shirt

lose your touch

lose your way

losing adjective

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Lose Definition & Meaning | Britannica Dictionary

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Jan 22

Lose vs. Loose: How to Use Each Correctly | Merriam-Webster

Lose and loose are easy to confuse. Lose typically functions only as a verb, with meanings related to failing to win or hold onto something; one might lose a game or lose ones temper. Loose can be used as an adjective ("not securely attached"), a verb ("to free something or someone"), and less commonly, a noun or adverb.

A loose key: easy to lose

We often see usage books warning against confusing the words loose and lose. These words are spelled in similar fashion, and the fact that lose rhymes so well with choose seems to prompt many people to assume that it too should contain a second O. Despite their orthographic closeness these two words are quite distinct in meaning.

Lose typically functions only as a verb, with such meanings as to bring to destruction, to miss from one's possession or from a customary or supposed place, or toundergodefeat in. Loose, on the other hand, occupies many more parts of speech. It can be an adjective (not rigidly fastened or securely attached, not tight-fitting) or a verb (to free from restraint, to let fly, discharge), and, less commonly, a noun (the release of an arrow from a bow) or an adverb (in a loose manner).

Both words are often found as parts of idioms. Here is a short guide to some of the things one might lose, and what each entails:

Lose ones temper - to get angryLose ones mind - to go insaneLose ones way - to become lost (often used figuratively)Lose ones head - to become very upset or angryLose heart - to become discouragedLose ones nerve - to become afraidLose count - to forget a number or totalLose face - to lose other people's respectLose it - lose one's composureLose out - fail to receive an expected reward or gainLose sleep over - to worry about (something) so much that one cannot sleep(this is usually used in negative statements, as in Im not losing any sleep over it)Lose ones grip - to lose control of one's thoughts and emotionsLose ones lunch - to vomit

When loose performs idiomatic functions it generally is as an adjective or adverb. Here are some of the things that might be loose, or that might exist in such a manner:

Loose change - coins that a person is carryingLoose cannon - a dangerously uncontrollable person or thingLoose-lipped - given to unrestrained talkLoose fit - a fit with sufficient clearance to permit free play or in the extreme to rattleHang loose - to remain calm or relaxedFast and loose - in a reckless or irresponsible manner (or in a craftily deceitful way)Have a screw loose - to be mentally unbalancedAll hell breaks loose - used to describe what happens when violent, destructive, and confused activity suddenly begins

Lose vs. Loose: How to Use Each Correctly | Merriam-Webster

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Jan 22

Loose vs. Lose –

Did you lose that sock in the dryer or loose it?Lose is a verb, while loose is almost always an adjective. Theyre often confused because of their similar spelling.

Lose can only be used as a verb. It describes when you come to be without something (e.g., to lose a sock in the laundry) or to suffer defeat or fail to win (e.g., to lose a soccer game).

Its spelling might make you think it rhymes with hose and chose, but it actually rhymes with choose and shoes. The S has a Z sound.

Loose rhymes with goose and mooseand is almost always used as an adjective. It can mean free from restraints or binds (e.g., The dog runs loose in the yar), not bound together (e.g., She let her hair hang loose), or not fitting closely or tightly (e.g., The shirt was loose on me, so I bought the next size down).

It can also refer to something that isnt very strict, or something thats relaxed or limber.

The verb form of loose is loosen, which means to unfasten or to make less tight.

It also shows up as part of the casual phrase loosen up, which also means to relax. Loosen is your best choice when you need a verb that represents the meaning of loose.

When youre trying to decide between lose and loose, consider whether youre looking for an adjective or a verb.

Remember, if you lose a sock, its disappeared. If you loose a sock, youve set it free.

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Loose vs. Lose -

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Jan 22

Healthy Ways to Lose Weight & Have a Body of an Athlete – CLNS Media

Healthy Ways to Lose Weight & Have a Body of an Athlete  CLNS Media

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