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Oct 12

Five myths about a balanced diet you should not believe – The Indian Express

There has always been a lot of focus and emphasis on a balanced diet, which is inclusive of proteins, vitamins, minerals, good fats, and carbohydrates in sufficient quantities. Many people believe if they switch to a healthy and balanced diet, they will be healthier, prevent unnecessary weight gain, and be free of diseases.But, no diet is fool-proof and even a balanced meal will not be able to help you meet your desired health and weight goals if you make mistakes along the way.

According to Nicky Sagar, a nutritionist, if one blindly follows a diet, it may not have a positive impact on the body.It is of utmost importance that we know the correct know-how for following a balanced diet, the expert says, busting some myths about a well-balanced diet that one must never believe.

Myth 1: Fruits are sources of sugar

While following a balanced diet in order to shed some kilos, many people ditch fruits. They feel fruits are loaded with sugar, which will lead to weight gain. Fruits contain natural fructose that provides a sweet taste to them and these are natural sugars that are important for the body. Also, fruits contain minerals, vitamins, and fibre, which are extremely beneficial. Consuming various fruits can help in reducing and maintaining weight, says Sagar.

Myth 2: Say no to carbs

Most people avoid carbs, thinking they are associated with weight gain and are unhealthy food. In reality, carbohydrates are extremely important for our body to function properly. They provide energy and make us more productive. Also, they are loaded with vitamins and minerals. Fruits and vegetables that are naturally sourced and unprocessed are great for the body. Avoid highly-processed foods like pastries, breads, etc. A complete no-carb diet is harmful to ones health, the nutritionist says.

Myth 3: Breakfast should never be skipped

You do not have to stuff yourself with food just because you have woken up. Having lunch is also totally fine for the body. Besides, many people follow intermittent fasting where they skip breakfast. Some studies have also shown skipping breakfast improves blood sugar levels. It is not mandatory to have breakfast every day.

Myth 4: Going for low-fat foods

Foods that are labelled low-fat are often detrimental for health. According to the expert, they are highly processed foods that contain added amounts of salt, sugar and other harmful ingredients.If you are on a balanced diet and you get provoked by such labels, stay away from them. These foods lead to weight gain, alter blood sugar levels and cause other long-term ill effects.

Myth 5: No more calories

A popular myth is that consuming calorie-inducing foods lead to weight gain. But, eating food with no or too few calories can lead to various health issues from fatigue to risking impact on the heart. Also, calories boost energy and keep the stomach fuller. If you choose to have no calories, you will feel hungry and end up eating more food than needed.

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Five myths about a balanced diet you should not believe - The Indian Express

Oct 12

The great contributions given to the Mediterranean Diet by the rules stated in the Bible and the spread of early Christianity in that area – Digital…

United States, 11th Oct 2022, King NewsWire, The Mediterranean Diet is a mainly green diet, based on the consumption of very large portions of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereals, having extra virgin olive oil as its only source of fat, and extensively using herbs. Other characteristics are its very little consumption of meat (almost exclusively white meat), fish as its predominant source of protein, and little consumption of milk and fermented dairy products. Moreover, various studies recognize its effectiveness in preventing Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs), particularly when combined with a healthy lifestyle, such as moderate daily physical activity, avoiding destructive behaviors (drugs, tobacco, or alcohol consupmtion), and nurturing good social relationships. Moreover, one can see the contributions given to the development of this diet by the spread of Christianity from the dietary rules given by the Bible; if you really want to learn about the Mediterranean diet, you need to delve into this aspect as well.

The Bible starts discussing nutrition as early as Genesis: Then God said, I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. [] (Gn 1:29). From this first passage, we can already see some of the basic principles of the Mediterranean diet. In the Old Testament there are many references to the diet of the patriarchs: Isaac grew grain (Gn 26:12) and Jacob sent his sons to Egypt during the famine to buy some (Gn 42-44). Olive oil was used both as food and for cooking food. Moreover, as reported in the episode of the widow of Sarepta (1 Kings 17:12), oil was widely used and was the basic ingredient in bread and cakes (Ex 29:2). Also noteworthy are the various dietary requirements specified in Leviticus chapter 11. The exclusion of certain meatssuch as pork, hare, all fish without fins and scales, and many birds (mainly birds of prey)probably led to the dietary basis of the Mediterranean diet, given the enormous similarities between the two. There are also literary notations that claim that vegetarian and vegan diets have biblical origins: as stated in Genesis 1:30, And to [] everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food. And it was so. According to the Bible, in fact, in the beginning man was vegetarian, and began eating meat after the universal flood and will probably return to vegetarianism when the original harmony is rebuilt. Moreover, the hygienic standards stated in the Bible were also ahead of their time, and were very important for the wholesomeness and processing of food in the Mediterranean Diet.

Following these rules, Atlanta Tech Park-based spin-off MAGISNAT ( has decided to market its dietary supplements, GARLIVE RECOVERY ( and GARLIVE ORAL SPRAY (, currently available only on Amazon.

Our philosophy is to study the plants that are typically employed in the Mediterranean diet, looking for molecules with beneficial effects from which they formulate their dietary supplements: the first ones are based on polyphenols from olive trees, titrated in hydroxytyrosol, with the following characteristics:

Highly concentrated: one daily dose of GARLIVE Dietary Supplements contains more polyphenols than two cups of extra virgin olive oil; also vitamins are in high dosages; for example, GARLIVE Recovery contains high concentrations of vitamins from the B, C, D groups (one tablet contains more vitamins than 14 oz of fruits);

At MAGISNAT, we are sure that rediscovering the uses of the plants we were gifted by God Is a Way Forward

Disclaimer: None of the reported information can be used to claim the properties of dietary supplements. Dietary supplements do not possess any therapeutic or preventive properties.

Organization: MAGISNAT

Contact Person: Matteo Bertelli MD, PhD

Email: [emailprotected]


Address 1: Atlanta Tech Park 107 Technology Parkway Suite 801 PEACHTREE CORNERS, GA 30092

Country: United States

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The great contributions given to the Mediterranean Diet by the rules stated in the Bible and the spread of early Christianity in that area - Digital...

Oct 12

Protein for muscle mass: What is the optimal intake? – Medical News Today

Protein is found in every cell and tissue in the body. While it has many vital roles in the body, protein is crucial for muscle growth because it helps repair and maintain muscle tissue.

The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) to prevent deficiency in minimally active adults is 0.8 grams (g) of protein per kilogram (kg) of body weight. However, newer research suggests individuals trying to build muscle need more than this.

Consuming less protein than the body needs has been linked to decreased muscle mass. In contrast, increased protein intakes above the RDA may help increase strength and lean body mass when paired with resistance exercise.

Protein is made up of amino acids that act as building blocks for cells and tissues in the body. There are 20 amino acids that combine to form proteins.

While some can be synthesized by the human body, others cannot. The nine amino acids that the body cannot make are called essential amino acids. These must be obtained through diet.

When a person eats protein, it is digested and broken down into amino acids, which are involved in many processes in the body, including tissue growth and repair, immune function, and energy production.

Like other body tissues, muscle proteins are continuously broken down and rebuilt. In order to build muscle, a person must consume more protein than what is broken down. This is often referred to as a net positive nitrogen balance, as protein is high in nitrogen.

If a person is not consuming adequate amounts of protein, their body tends to break down muscle to provide the body with the amino acids needed to support body functions and preserve more important tissues. Over time, this can lead to decreased muscle mass and strength.

Lastly, the body uses amino acids for muscle protein synthesis (MPS), the primary driver of muscle repair, recovery, and growth after strenuous exercises.

According to the 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, most healthy adults over 19 years old should get between 10-35% of their daily calories from protein. One gram of protein provides 4 calories.

This means that a person who eats 2,000 calories per day would need to consume between 50 and 175 grams of protein per day.

The current RDA of 0.8 g per kg of body weight for protein is based on the amount required to maintain nitrogen balance and prevent muscle loss. However, extending these recommendations to active individuals who are looking to build muscle may not be appropriate.

When it comes to building muscle mass, the ideal amount of daily protein a person should consume varies depending on several factors, including age, gender, activity level, health, and other variables.

However, several studies have given us a good idea of how to calculate the amount of protein adults need for muscle gain based on body weight.

While most studies agree that higher protein intakes are associated with improvements in lean body mass and strength when combined with resistance training, the optimal amount of protein required to build muscle remains controversial.

Here is what the latest research says.

One 2020 meta-analysis published in the journal Nutrition Reviews found that protein intakes ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 g per kg of body weight can support increases in lean body mass. In particular, researchers noted that gradually increasing protein take, even by as little as 0.1 grams per kilogram of body weight per day, can help maintain or increase muscle mass.

The rate of increase in lean body mass from higher protein intakes rapidly decreased after 1.3 g per kg of body weight was exceeded. Strength training suppressed this decline. This suggests that increased protein intake paired with strength training is best for gaining lean body mass.

Another 2022 meta-analysis published in the journal Sports Medicine concluded that higher protein intakes of around 1.5 g per kg of body weight daily paired with resistance training are required for optimal effects on muscle strength. Researchers noted that the benefits of increased protein intake on strength and muscle mass appear to plateau at 1.5 to 1.6 g per kg of body weight per day.

Lastly, one 2022 systematic review and meta-analysis published in the Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia, and Muscle concluded that a protein intake of 1.6 g per kg of body weight per day or higher results in small increases in lean body mass in young, resistance-trained individuals. The results on older individuals were marginal.

Notably, 80% of studies examined in this review reported participants consuming a minimum of 1.2 g of protein per kg of body weight per day, which is still higher than the current RDA. This may be a potential contributor to the decreased effects of protein intervention in combination with resistance training in older adults.

While it is difficult to give exact figures due to varying study results, the optimum amount of protein for muscle-building appears to be between 1.2 and 1.6 g per kg of body weight.

This means a 180-pound (81.8 kg) male, for example, would need to consume between 98 and 131 g of protein daily, combined with resistance training, to support muscle growth.

A person can meet their daily protein needs by eating animal and plant-based protein sources.

Animal-based protein sources include:

Plant-based protein sources include:

Some nutritionists consider animal protein sources to be superior to plant-based protein sources when it comes to building muscle mass. This is because they are complete proteins and contain all the essential amino acids the body needs in sufficient amounts. They are also easy to digest.

Some experts consider most plant proteins to be incomplete proteins because they do not contain all essential amino acids. However, individuals can pair incomplete protein sources to form a complete protein. Examples include rice and beans, hummus and pita bread, or peanut butter on whole wheat bread.

Doctors generally agree that healthy adults can safely tolerate a long-term protein intake of up to 2 g per kg of body weight per day without any side effects. However, some groups of people, such as healthy, well-trained athletes, may tolerate up to 3.5 g per kg of body weight.

Most research suggests that eating more than 2 g of protein per kg of body weight per day can cause health issues over time.

Symptoms of excessive protein intake include:

More severe risks associated with chronic protein overconsumption include:

When combined with resistance training, protein intakes above the current RDA can support muscle building.

The best way to meet your daily protein needs is by consuming lean meat, fish, beans, nuts, and legumes.

Since the optimal amount of protein a person needs depends on age, health status, and activity level, consider speaking with a healthcare provider or a registered dietitian to discuss how much protein is suitable for you.

Excerpt from:
Protein for muscle mass: What is the optimal intake? - Medical News Today

Oct 12

What is the best way for long-term weight loss: exercise, diet, or pills? This new study has the answers. – The Indian Express

Leaner individuals, who attempt weight loss by exercise, dieting, or commercial programmes and pills, ended up gaining weight in the long run, with their 24-year risk of Type-2 diabetes also going up. In contrast, intentional weight loss in obese persons was found to be overall beneficial, according to a recent study by the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health.

Obesity is one of the biggest risk factors for developing Type-2 diabetes.

The researchers found exercise to be the most effective weight-loss strategy during a four-year follow-up with the average weight being 4.2 per cent less in obese individuals, 2.5 per cent in overweight individuals and 0.4 per cent in lean individuals as compared to their counterparts who did not attempt weight loss. Among those who tried commercial programmes or diet pills, the obese weighed 0.3 per cent less, the overweight individuals weighed two per cent more, and the leaner individuals 3.7 per cent more than their counterparts.

What was the impact of weight loss on diabetes?

The researchers looked at the risk of Type-2 diabetes 24 years later and found that it went down in obese individuals irrespective of the weight-loss method attempted. The risk of diabetes went down by 21 per cent in obese individuals who exercised and 13 per cent in those who took diet pills.

As for overweight people, the risk of diabetes went down by nine per cent with exercise but shot up by 42 per cent in those who took the pills.

In lean individuals, all weight loss strategies led to an increase in the risk of Type-2 diabetes. The risk increased by nine per cent in those who lost weight through exercise and 54 per cent for those who took pills, according to the study.

We were a bit surprised when we first saw the positive associations of weight loss attempts with faster weight gain and higher Type 2 diabetes risk among lean individuals. However, we now know that such observations are supported by biology that unfortunately entails adverse health outcomes when lean individuals try to lose weight intentionally. Good news is that individuals with obesity will clearly benefit from losing a few pounds and the health benefits last even when the weight loss is temporary, said Qi Sun from the department of nutrition at Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health in a release.

What does this study mean for India?

With around 77 million people in India living with diabetes with the numbers projected to grow several fold in the coming years should leaner individuals stop exercising? No, says Dr Ambrish Mithal, Chairman and Head of Diabetes and Endocrinology at Max Healthcare.

Everyone, including those with lower BMI, should continue to do their regular exercise to maintain a healthy weight we tend to put on weight as we age and be physically fit. What they are not supposed to do is try and lose more weight, he said.

With over 80 per cent of Type-2 diabetes in people who are overweight and obese, when we talk of diabetes remission now, weight loss is a very important strategy. But we have always maintained that it cannot be the only strategy for everyone. When it comes to diabetes in leaner people, it may be because of less production of insulin rather than the cells being resistant to it, and then weight loss will not be of help, said Dr Mithal.

He said that sometimes hyper-aware persons, someone who is lean and has been maintaining their HbA1c for years but now wants to get off all medications, attempt to lose weight. Reversal is not possible for everybody, he said.

But who should be considered overweight in India? Dr Mithal as well as Dr Anoop Misra, Chairman of Fortis CDOC Center for Diabetes agree that a BMI cut-off of 25 for being overweight does not work in India.

Even leaner Indians have a lot of fat around their belly, so the international cut-off for BMI 25 does not work here. I say, people should try to bring their BMI to around 21.5 in order to lose the fat stored in the liver, said Dr Misra.

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What is the best way for long-term weight loss: exercise, diet, or pills? This new study has the answers. - The Indian Express

Oct 12

American College of Lifestyle Medicine Adds Nutrition Measurement, Management and Behavior Change Platform Diet ID to its Corporate Roundtable – PR…

"Diet ID is on a mission to make diet qualitythe single leading predictor of mortality and morbidity in the modern worlda vital sign."

ST. LOUIS (PRWEB) October 11, 2022

The American College of Lifestyle Medicine (ACLM) has announced the addition of nutrition measurement, management and behavior change platform Diet ID to its Lifestyle Medicine Corporate Roundtable, a group of thought leaders and industry professionals who explore effective clinical innovations, activate marketing strategies, accelerate reimbursement and policy adoption, and pursue research and demonstrations of lifestyle medicine in practice. ACLM launched its Corporate Roundtable in 2016 and it now includes nearly 50 active member organizations in the lifestyle medicine ecosystem.

Lifestyle medicine is a medical specialty that uses therapeutic lifestyle interventions as a primary modality to treat chronic conditions including, but not limited to, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Lifestyle medicine certified clinicians are trained to apply evidence-based, whole-person, prescriptive lifestyle change to treat and, when used intensively, often reverse such conditions. Applying the six pillars of lifestyle medicinea whole-food, plant-predominant eating pattern, physical activity, restorative sleep, stress management, avoidance of risky substances and positive social connectionsalso provides effective prevention for these conditions.

Diet ID is a business-to-business, software-as-a-service (SAAS) company that has invented, patented, scientifically validated and widely commercialized a revolutionary advance in dietary assessment employing a visual approach to measuring and optimizing diet quality. Compared to other dietary assessment tools, this personalized, customizable platform saves time, effort and cost while generating a personalized route to wellness in just minutes. The first fundamentally new way to measure dietary intake in half a century, Diet ID is on a mission to make diet qualitythe single leading predictor of mortality and morbidity in the modern worlda vital sign.

According to multiple studies, diet is the leading predictor of chronic disease risk more than genetics, physical activity, or smoking. A critical element in health optimization, managing diet is extremely challenging, as its tedious, costly to measure and track, and difficult to personalize. Diet ID's digital nutrition tools quickly help providers understand their populations nutrition intake, as well as provide a personalized blueprint for changes to improve and optimize health. In addition, used as a dietary intervention, the platform offers the unique ability to impact downstream cost savings achieved through upstream improvement in diet quality.

Rooted in decades of research and validation, Diet ID offers transparency with the fastest way to measure diet quality, food intake, and estimated nutrient intake. Diet ID allows effortless diet quality assessment with its digital one-minute, validated visual dietary assessment. A clinician can generate results and individual plans in real time. For the patient, the Daily Actions Module swaps out burdensome food logging for joyful social challenges, meeting people wherever they are on their health improvement journeys.

The advancement of lifestyle as medicine in all of its luminous promise to add years to lives, and life to years, is dependent upon pearls of innovation, said Diet ID Founder and CEO David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP, FACLM. Diet ID is to diet as a vital sign as the blood pressure cuff is to blood pressure and should be applied as such universally. The routine inclusion of dietary assessment, and management, is the next evolutionary advance in the standard of food as medicine in clinical care. ACLMs Corporate Roundtable provides us all the opportunity to explore our synergies, be more than a sum of parts, and make together a greater difference.

Nutrition is the foundation of lifestyle medicine, with the power to prevent, treat, and reverse chronic disease, said ACLM President Cate Collings, MD, FACC, MS, DipABLM. Conventional dietary assessments are cumbersome and neither user nor provider friendly. Diet ID makes it possible to more easily standardize and streamline dietary measurement so that providers can spend their time and target the resources to best help patients. We welcome Diet ID to our Corporate Roundtable.

ABOUT DIET ID Founded in 2016 and headquartered in in Detroit, MI, with a team around the U.S., Diet ID is focused on making dietary assessment a vital sign. Founded by Dr. David L. Katz, lifestyle medicine and nutrition leader and founder of the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, Diet ID provides a scientifically valid approach to help people improve what and how they eat, one bite at a time. The result is permanent habit change, with a preference for healthful foods. Learn more about Diet ID at

ABOUT ACLM--The American College of Lifestyle Medicine is the nations only medical professional society advancing lifestyle medicine as the foundation for a redesigned, value-based and equitable healthcare delivery system, leading to whole person health. ACLM educates, equips, empowers and supports its members through quality, evidence-based education, certification and research to identify and eradicate the root cause of chronic disease, with a clinical outcome goal of health restoration as opposed to disease management.

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Oct 12

The Diet You Should Eat To Benefit Your Skin Type – Health Digest

If you have dry skin, you may find that your skin feels tight, rough, and flaky. To help hydrate and protect your dry skin, be sure to include plenty of fatty fish, avocados, olive oil, nuts, and seeds in your diet (via Medical News Today). Fatty fish, like salmon and yellowfin tuna, are a great source of omega-3 fatty acids, which help to keep your skin hydrated. Avocados and olive oil are also rich in healthy fats that help to nourish and moisturize your skin. Nuts and seeds are another good option for dry skin, as they're packed with vitamins and minerals that can help to keep your skin healthy.

Foods that are high in vitamin A can also help with dry skin. These include foods like sweet potato, carrots, kale, and spinach. Vitamin A helps to protect your skin from damage and can also help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. You should also try to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables that contain a lot of water, like watermelon, cucumber, and strawberries. These foods can help to keep your skin hydrated and looking healthy.

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The Diet You Should Eat To Benefit Your Skin Type - Health Digest

Oct 12

Anti-inflammatory diet: How to reduce inflammation through eating right – Times Now

Inflammation occurs when cells travel to the place of an injury or foreign body like bacteria, but if these cells stay in the body for too long, it may lead to chronic inflammation

New Delhi: If you suffer from the issue of inflammation, according to doctors, before taking any medicine try and follow the natural route.

What is inflammation and how does it affect the body?

Health experts believe that chronic inflammation is a symptom of many underlying health conditions like arthritis or even stress.

How to reduce inflammation naturally

The best way to reduce chronic inflammation is to adopt an anti-inflammatory diet and lifestyle that may help you stay healthy and slow down aging. The diet would also help reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, dementia, and autoimmune diseases like joint pain, and cancer.

Doctors believe that an anti-inflammatory diet provides a healthy balance of protein, carbs, and fat at each meal. Make sure you also meet your bodys needs for vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water.

A low-carb diet also reduces inflammation, particularly for people with obesity or metabolic syndrome.

Some of the foods that help reduce inflammation are:

Disclaimer: Tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information purposes only and should not be construed as professional medical advice. Always consult your doctor or a dietician before starting any fitness programme or making any changes to your diet.

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Anti-inflammatory diet: How to reduce inflammation through eating right - Times Now

Oct 12

Eddie Hall reveals his insane new diet as strongman piles on the pounds for return at Worlds Strongest N… – The US Sun

STRONGMAN Eddie Hall is bulking up as he heads back into competition.

Brit star Hall, 34, slimmed down from a whopping top weight of 434lbs for his heavyweight boxing fight with Hafthor Bjornson earlier this year.





He tipped the scales at 310lbs for the exhibition bout which saw Game of Thrones actor Thor come out on top.

Now Hall - who has 3.4m Instagram followers - is ditching his foray into the squared circle and returning to his strongman roots.

Later this fall, the strongman officially returns to the sport at the 2022Giants Live Worlds Strongest Nation competition.

It'll be the UK taking on the USA in the team-led event, with Hall a team caption for the Brits andRobert Oberstfor Team USA.

The event is all set for November in Liverpool, England and the 2017 World's Strongest Man is taking his prep seriously.

Although he's not looking to return to his 400lbs-plus days, Eddie is having to fuel his intense workouts with a new diet.

And that involves a lot of effort - as shown by a viral video he uploaded of his daily food routine.

With wife and usual chef Alexandra out on errands, it was up to the strongman to don the apron and cook his own meals.

He kicks off his day with a hefty breakfast shake, which provides around 700 calories of crucial early morning fuel.

Packed full of protein, the shake includes two hefty scoops of whey protein, peanut butter, one banana, chocolate spread, milk and a hearty helping of ice.

Training for Hall doesn't start until after lunch, which is when he really starts to chow down.

All about the protein again, the man mountain demolishes five chicken-filled wraps before his afternoon workout.

They provide him with around 1,500 calories and 80 grams of protein, with a further two wraps held back for after his training session.

Following an intense couple of hours in the gym, Eddie concludes his food marathon with two humungous burgers.

He packs two massive patties into buns along with sauce, tomatoes, cheese and bacon - before adding a whopping amount of home-cooked potato wedges.

In total, he guzzles 4,600 calories and 385 grams of protein during a typical day.

Eddie is looking forward after his boxing defeat to Thor in March, where he was dropped twice by the giant Icelandic star.

He told Men's Health: "Obviously, losing the fight is hard to take, but I think losing is a big part of life.

"I didn't win World Strongest Man first time around.

"You've got to take those losses, learn, go away, recoup and come back bigger and stronger.

"Sometimes, losses are better than the wins, because they really do shape you, and who likes somebody that wins everything?"

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Eddie Hall reveals his insane new diet as strongman piles on the pounds for return at Worlds Strongest N... - The US Sun

Oct 12

Unhealthy Dietary Patterns and Risks of Incident Obesity | DMSO – Dove Medical Press


Obesity is one of the important challenges in public health worldwide. It may cause damage to the function of human organs and systems and ultimately lead to other chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, and cancer.18 Over the last decades, the global prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly, approximately 11% of men and 15% of women were obese in the world.9 In 2015, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese adults were 41.3% and 15.7%, respectively.10 Obesity-related NCDs brought a huge economic burden in China, and obesity and overweight accounted for 11.1% of deaths associated with NCDs in 2019.11

The root cause of obesity is that the bodys energy intake is greater than the bodys energy expenditure, resulting in excess energy being stored in the form of fat although lots of risk factors for obesity were explored and identified including genetics, diet, physical exercise, and psychological factors in previous studies.11 Thus, dietary factors still play a key role in the process of developing obesity even though some previous findings were controversial over countries or populations.12,13

The traditional nutritional epidemiology researches generally explore relationships between one or several foods or nutrients and health outcomes. Recently, dietary patterns of the overall diet were occupied to assess the comprehensive effects of food or nutrients on human health, and they showed more effectively and precisely than traditional those.14 However, different dietary patterns varied widely over countries, races, and research methods.15 Previous studies showed that western and junk food dietary patterns increased energy intake and risk of obesity,16 while Mediterranean dietary pattern was considered to reduce triglyceride levels.17 Also, an association between Chinese traditional dietary pattern and obesity was reported in one research.18 However, most of previous studies were cross-sectional studies between dietary patterns and obesity,1820 and it was rare to explore prospective associations between dietary patterns and obesity with community population cohorts in China.

There were huge differences in food culture and diet behaviors over different regions, even in China, due to the geographical features and ethnic diversity.21 Thus, based on a prospective community-based population cohort in Guizhou province, this study aimed to explore associations between dietary patterns and incident obesity in Southwest China.

Data for this study were from the Guizhou Population Health Cohort Study (GPHCS), a prospective community-based cohort in Guizhou province, China.22 The baseline survey was conducted between November 2010 and December 2012, and it was followed up between December 2016 and June 2020. The inclusion criteria for subjects in this study included followings: (1) aged 18 years or above; (2) lived in these communities and had no plan to move; (3) completed the questionnaire and blood sample collection; (4) signed written informed consent before data collection. A total of 9280 participants were recruited at the baseline. Those who had obesity at baseline (n = 644), who lost to follow-up (n = 1045), and who had missing data (n = 1634) or incomplete dietary survey (n = 215) were excluded. Finally, the remaining 5742 participants were eligible for the analysis (Figure 1). This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Guizhou Province Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (No. S2017-02).

Figure 1 Flow chart of participants in this cohort study.

A structured questionnaire was done through a face-to-face interview by local trained health professionals. The baseline and follow-up questionnaire included demographic characteristics (age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, marriage status, and occupation), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol use, and physical activity), history of chronic diseases, and dietary factors. Current smokers referred to smoking tobacco products including manufactured or locally produced in a month.23 Alcohol drinkers referred to drinking alcohol more than once every month within the last 12 months.22 Physical activity was defined as meeting WHO recommendations on physical activity according to the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ).24

Dietary data including frequencies and quantities of 16 food items (fermented bean curd, bean paste, pickles, oil, legumes, meat, fruits, milk, eggs, fish, potatoes, grains, vegetables, beverages, desserts, and fried food) consumed during the recent 12 months before the study recruitment were collected by a simplified Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric measurements including height, body weight, and blood pressure were measured. BMI was calculated as body weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2). Obesity was defined as BMI 30kg/m2 based on the WHO BMI classification standard.25

In this study, factor analysis with eigenvalues >1 and varimax rotation was occupied to aggregate 16 food items into factors with food patterns. Four factors that explained most of the variances were determined based on scree plots and their loadings for the initial food items. The factor-loading matrix for the four dietary patterns and their food or food groups is shown in Table S1. Factor 1, named high-salt and high-oil pattern, was characterized by a high factor load of fermented bean curd, bean paste, pickles, and oil. Factor 2, named western pattern, was characterized by a high factor load of legumes, meat, fruits, milk, eggs, fish, and potatoes. Factor 3, named grain-vegetable pattern, was characterized by a high factor load of grains and vegetables. Factor 4, named junk food pattern, was characterized by a high factor load of beverages, desserts, and fried food. A summary score for each pattern was then derived and categorized into quartiles (Quartile 025th, Q1; 26th-50th, Q2; 51st-75th, Q3; 76th-100th, Q4) for further analysis.

The Students t-test and the Chi-square test were used for continuous variables and categorical variables, respectively. Person-years (PYs) of follow-up were calculated from the date of enrolling the cohort until the date of diagnosis of obesity, death, or follow-up, whichever came first. Because physical activity violated the proportional hazards assumption, the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by physical activity were employed to determine the association between dietary patterns and incident obesity and to estimate hazard risk (HR), adjusted HR (aHR), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Several variables were adjusted and controlled in the multivariable models: age (1829, 3064, 65 years), sex (male/female), Han Chinese (no/yes), education years (9/<9), current smokers (no/yes), alcohol drinkers (no/yes), diabetes mellitus (no/yes), hypertension (no/yes). Tests for linear trends across increasing quartiles of dietary pattern were performed by assigning median value to each quartile of dietary pattern. The sensitivity analysis was conducted after exclusion of participants with overweight at baseline. All statistical tests were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All analyses were performed in R software (Version 4.1.0; R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria).

The baseline characteristics of participants are presented in Table 1. Of all subjects, the average age was 45.06 15.21 years old and more than half were women. Most of them were Han Chinese and had 9 education years or longer. The prevalence of current smoking and alcohol drinking was around one-third, while the proportion of physical activity was more than four-fifths. There were significant differences in education level, physical activity, current smokers, alcohol drinkers, hypertension, and diabetes between men and women (detailed in Table 1).

Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of Participants

As shown in Table 2, four dietary patterns statistically varied over different age groups and physical activity groups. Men (53.6%) had higher grain-vegetable pattern scores than women (46.4%). Han Chinese had more chances to have western pattern and junk food pattern. Participants with less than 9 education years had lower proportions of high-salt and high-oil pattern, western pattern, and junk food pattern. Those subjects with hypertension or diabetes tended to have high-salt and high-oil pattern and junk food pattern. There were also significant differences in high-salt and high-oil patterns and western pattern among participants who were current smokers or alcohol drinkers.

Table 2 Participants Characteristics According to Quartiles of Four Dietary Patterns

During the follow-up of 40,524.15 PYs, 427 new obesity cases were identified and the incidence rate of obesity was 10.54/1000PYs overall. There were significant sex differences in the incidence rate (9.36/1000PYs for men vs 11.64/1000PYs for women, p = 0.004). The incidence rate increased with age and the age-specific incidence rates of obesity are displayed over sex in Figure 2. Similar sex differences were observed among those aged 30 to 64 years old (p = 0.010) or elders (p = 0.031). Also, the highest incidence rate of obesity reached 12.27/1000PYs and 9.8/1000PYs in both women and men aged 30 to 64 years, respectively.

Figure 2 Age-specific Incidence rates of obesity for Chinese adults over sex.

Abbreviation: PYs, person years of follow-up.

Note: **P < 0.01.

In the Cox regression model stratified by physical activity, associations between dietary patterns and incident obesity are presented in Table 3. Participants in the higher quartile of junk food pattern score were more likely to develop obese with the HR (95% CI) of 1.54 (1.162.02) and 1.44 (1.091.89) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively. After the adjustment for covariates, both aHRs in the Q3 and Q4 group of junk food pattern increased slightly and were still significant. Also, the risk of incident obesity significantly increased with the score of junk food pattern (p for trend = 0.040). In addition, subjects in the Q3 group of western pattern had a significantly higher risk of incident obesity (aHR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.011.75) compared to those in the Q1 group, and there was a marginally raised trend in the risk of incident obesity as western pattern scores (p for trend = 0.087). It was not found that there were any significant associations between high-salt and high oil pattern or grain-vegetable pattern and incident obesity. No significant interactions were observed between dietary pattern and main covariates, either. In the sensitivity analysis, the main results remained robust after exclusion of participants with overweight at baseline (seen in Figure S1).

Table 3 Associations Between Baseline Dietary Patterns and Incident Obesity

The prevalence of obesity has been increasing dramatically worldwide. As a leading risk factor for obesity, unhealthy dietary has been prevalent in China. During the follow-up of 40,524.15 PYs, the incidence rate of obesity was estimated at 10.54/1000PYs in this study population overall with a significant sex difference. Also, the highest incidence rate of obesity reached at 12.27/1000PYs and 9.80/1000PYs in both women and men aged 3064 years, respectively. Those findings indicated that there was a high risk of developing obesity in this study population, especially for women, which called the development and implementation of specific intervention for the prevention and control of obesity.

In the present study, four major dietary patterns were identified and then associations between four dietary patterns and incident obesity were explored among adult residents in Southwest China. The junk food pattern consisted of high consumption of beverages, desserts, and fried food. Likewise, the western pattern was characterized by high consumption of legumes, meat, fruits, milk, eggs, fish, and potatoes. We found that junk food pattern and western pattern were positively associated with the increased risk of developing obesity, while no significant associations between high-oil and high-salt pattern, grain-vegetable pattern and incident obesity were observed in this study. The results were consistent with the South Asian consensus on Nutritional Medical Treatment of Diabesity, which advocated for a hypocaloric diet and reducing intake of carbohydrates and saturated fats.26 Meanwhile, among Iranian women, it was reported that a low-carbohydrate diet was not associated with overweight and obesity.27

In China, the consumption of junk food such as desserts, beverages, and fried food is on the rise since the 1980s.11 In this study, the contribution of junk food dietary pattern to a higher risk of obesity was demonstrated, which was consistent with a Mediterranean prospective cohort design with a median 6-year follow-up.28 Previous studies revealed that during the frying process, excessive fat and calories tended to increase, and trans-fatty acids related to the risk of weight gain29 were also prone to be generated.30 Furthermore, the junk food pattern has a high intake of beverages and sweets, and the positive associations of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to obesity were confirmed by Framingham Heart Study.31 A recent meta-analysis revealed that the consumption of SSBs increased waist circumference in adult populations.32 Also, a cross-sectional study33 indicated that fruit drink intake was significantly linked with a higher risk of obesity among women. In addition, added sweet or sugar foods were positively associated with BMI in the women.34 Excess sugar intake among sweets and desserts was a significant contributor to the development of overweight or obesity.35,36

Over the past decades, the socioeconomic level has changed dramatically in China, especially in the southwest region. The transition from the traditional dietary pattern characterized by a high intake of vegetables, grains, and legumes to the Western model had occurred.37,38 It was observed that western dietary pattern had a higher incident risk of obesity and there was a marginally raised trend in the incident risk of obesity as western pattern levels in this study. Several studies have demonstrated that Chinese who had a western dietary pattern were more likely to suffer from obesity.39,40 Some similar findings were also reported among children and adolescents.12,41,42 One of possible reasons might be that meat and meat products are rich in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids,43,44 which could increase the risk of suffering from obesity to a certain degree.45 However, Daneshzad et al46 demonstrated that there was no significant association between total meat consumption and obesity based on a meta-analysis of observational studies. Therefore, more prospective studies are needed to clarify the association between red meat and total meat, and obesity.

Moreover, given the topographical characteristics of the Guizhou region, a wide range of potato products, boiled, fried, or mashed, were widely consumed in the local area. As a staple food in the western world, potatoes, an energy-dense food, played a significant role in the western diet pattern, and contributed greater amounts of carbohydrates to the diet.47 Foods containing more starches and refined carbohydrates were positively associated with weight gain.48 A meta-analysis confirmed that weight change was positively associated with the consumption of potatoes (boiled or mashed potatoes, potato chips, and French fries).49 Halkjaer et al50 also reported that total potato intake was associated with the increase in waist circumstances in women. However, the evidence for a link between potato intake and the risk of obesity remains controversial.51,52

Based on this 10-year community population-based cohort in Southwest China,53 this study extended the evidence on the association between dietary patterns and incident obesity. Also, this study collected data through FFQ rather than 24h dietary recall to get long-term usual intake more accurately.41,54 However, there were some main limitations in the study. First, the outcome of obesity was only assessed by BMI and did not include those measures of central obesity such as waistline in this study, which may underestimate the incidence of obesity. Second, over several years of follow-up, the daily diet measured on baseline may be time-varying to bias our findings but we did not collect detailed diet information in the follow-up of this study. Third, Cox proportional hazards regression models were employed with the strata by physical activity to meet Proportional Hazards Assumption. In addition, some possible confounding factors such as medications, family history of obesity or genetic variants related to obesity were not collected in this study, which may bias the findings from this study. Our findings in this southwest Chinese population need to be confirmed or clarified by more prospective studies over different populations. For future studies, associations between diets and obesity measured by waistline or body composition should be explored, and genediet interactions on developing obesity should be considered, too.

In summary, there was a high risk of incident obesity among this Chinese community population of Southwest China. Also, four dietary patterns were identified in this community population of Southwest China, and junk food and western pattern increased risks of incident obesity. The findings provided new evidence for obesity prevention and control from the dietary perspective, especially for the Chinese population. Urgent intervention is called to be developed to promote a healthy dietary pattern and prevent the becoming obesity.

The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Institutional Review Board (or Ethics Committee) of the center of disease control and prevention of Guizhou Province (No. S2017-02).

Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before the data collection.

This work was supported by the Guizhou Province Science and Technology Support Program (Qiankehe [2018]2819).

All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work.

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Oct 12

Japan YouTuber Diet member’s prolonged overseas absence opens can of legal worms – The Mainichi – The Mainichi

TOKYO -- Japanese YouTuber "GaaSyy," who was elected to Japan's House of Councillors on the ticket of the NHK Party, remains overseas and has not attended Diet sessions, with reports earlier this year that he was residing in Dubai. The head of the chamber's Committee on Rules and Administration has requested that he quickly return to Japan and appear in the Diet.

Many people may think that GaaSyy, whose real name is Yoshikazu Higashitani, should step down as a Diet member if he has no record of activities in his elected role. If he continues to remain absent it is possible that the upper house Committee on Discipline could discuss punishment including expelling him as a member of the chamber. But this is no simple matter.

Being voted in carries a great deal of significance for any candidate, not just GaaSyy. This is because it is the will of the people, which has the greatest value in a democracy. Diet members, in principle, have immunity from arrest during Diet sessions, though they can be arrested when caught in the act of a crime or when the house approves of it. This is stipulated in Articles 50 of Japan's Constitution, which states: "Except in cases provided by law, members of both Houses shall be exempt from apprehension while the Diet is in session, and any members apprehended before the opening of the session shall be freed during the term of the session upon demand of the House."

Article 51 of the supreme law further stipulates: "Members of both Houses shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches, debates or votes cast inside the House."

These constitutional stipulations are designed to protect the status of Diet members. It has been common throughout history and across the world -- not to mention in Russia -- for members of parliament to be arrested over words and actions that are unfavorable to the government. To ensure that such a thing never happens, Diet members in Japan are protected to a degree that may seem excessive at first glance.

Regarding the expulsion of Diet members, the second clause of Article 58 of the Constitution states: "Each House shall establish its rules pertaining to meetings, proceedings and internal discipline, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon." A majority of two-thirds rather than a simple majority is a high hurdle, but still, there are deep-rooted views that this stipulation should be applied with caution.

The NHK Party says that GaaSyy is not returning to Japan because he will carry out his activities as a Diet member while living overseas. We cannot easily claim that his actions do not constitute political activities. There is a wide scope for determining what kind of activities are political. And if it turns out he is not doing his job satisfactorily, then the public has the option of voting him out in the next election.

Some people may say they cannot understand GaaSyy's approach, but if the principles protecting Diet members were loosened without caution, the move could return to haunt the country. While it is unthinkable for the current government to unfairly arrest lawmakers, we cannot rule out the possibility of a government that could do that surfacing in Japan in the future.

Parliamentary privileges stipulated in the Constitution act as a last line of defense to prevent the government's abuse of power.

(Mainichi political premier editorial division)

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Japan YouTuber Diet member's prolonged overseas absence opens can of legal worms - The Mainichi - The Mainichi

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