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Apr 18

Paleolithic diet – Wikipedia

The terms Paleolithic diet, paleo diet, caveman diet, and stone-age diet[1] describe modern fad diets requiring the sole or predominant consumption of foods presumed to have been the only foods available to or consumed by humans during the Paleolithic era.[2]

The digestive abilities of anatomically modern humans, however, are different from those of Paleolithic humans, which undermines the diet’s core premise.[3] During the 2.6-million-year-long Paleolithic era, the highly variable climate and worldwide spread of human populations meant that humans were, by necessity, nutritionally adaptable. Supporters of the diet mistakenly presuppose that human digestion has remained essentially unchanged over time.[3][4]

While there is wide variability in the way the paleo diet is interpreted,[5] the diet typically includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, roots, and meat and typically excludes foods such as dairy products, grains, sugar, legumes, processed oils, salt, alcohol or coffee.[1][additional citation(s) needed] The diet is based on avoiding not just processed foods, but rather the foods that humans began eating after the Neolithic Revolution when humans transitioned from hunter-gatherer lifestyles to settled agriculture.[2] The ideas behind the diet can be traced to Walter Voegtlin,[6]:41 and were popularized in the best-selling books of Loren Cordain.[7]

Like other fad diets, the Paleo diet is promoted as a way of improving health.[8] There is some evidence that following this diet may lead to improvements in terms of body composition and metabolic effects compared with the typical Western diet[5] or compared with diets recommended by national nutritional guidelines.[9] There is no good evidence, however, that the diet helps with weight loss, other than through the normal mechanisms of calorie restriction.[10] Following the Paleo diet can lead to an inadequate calcium intake, and side effects can include weakness, diarrhea, and headaches.[2][10]












According to Adrienne Rose Johnson, the idea that the primitive diet was superior to current dietary habits dates back to the 1890s with such writers as Dr.Emmet Densmore and Dr.John Harvey Kellogg. Densmore proclaimed that “bread is the staff of death,” while Kellogg supported a diet of starchy and grain-based foods.[11] The idea of a Paleolithic diet can be traced to a 1975 book by gastroenterologist Walter Voegtlin,[6]:41 which in 1985 was further developed by Stanley Boyd Eaton and Melvin Konner, and popularized by Loren Cordain in his 2002 book The Paleo Diet.[7] The terms caveman diet and stone-age diet are also used,[12] as is Paleo Diet, trademarked by Cordain.[13]

In 2012 the Paleolithic diet was described as being one of the “latest trends” in diets, based on the popularity of diet books about it;[14] in 2013 the diet was Google’s most searched-for weight-loss method.[15]

Like other fad diets, the paleo diet is marketed with an appeal to nature and a narrative of conspiracy theories about how nutritional research, which does not support the supposed benefits of the paleo diet, is controlled by a malign food industry.[8][16] A Paleo lifestyle and ideology have developed around the diet.[17][18]

The diet advises eating only foods presumed to be available to Paleolithic humans, but there is wide variability in people’s understanding of what foods these were, and an accompanying ongoing debate.[2]

In the original description of the paleo diet in Cordain’s 2002 book, he advocated eating as much like Paleolithic people as possible, which meant:[19]

The diet is based on avoiding not just modern processed foods, but also the foods that humans began eating after the Neolithic Revolution.[2]

The scientific literature generally uses the term “Paleo nutrition pattern”, which has been variously described as:

The aspects of the Paleo diet that advise eating fewer processed foods and less sugar and salt are consistent with mainstream advice about diet.[1] Diets with a paleo nutrition pattern have some similarities to traditional ethnic diets such as the Mediterranean diet that have been found to be healthier than the Western diet.[2][5] Following the Paleo diet, however, can lead to nutritional deficiencies such as those of vitaminD and calcium, which in turn could lead to compromised bone health;[1][20] it can also lead to an increased risk of ingesting toxins from high fish consumption.[2]

Research into the weight loss effects of the paleolithic diet has generally been of poor quality.[10] One trial of obese postmenopausal women found improvements in weight and fat loss after six months, but the benefits had ceased by 24 months; side effects among participants included “weakness, diarrhea, and headaches”.[10] In general, any weight loss caused by the diet is merely the result of calorie restriction, rather than a special feature of the diet itself.[10]

As of 2016 there are limited data on the metabolic effects on humans eating a Paleo diet, but the data are based on clinical trials that have been too small to have a statistical significance sufficient to allow the drawing of generalizations.[2][5][20][not in citation given] These preliminary trials have found that participants eating a paleo nutrition pattern had better measures of cardiovascular and metabolic health than people eating a standard diet,[2][9] though the evidence is not strong enough to recommend the Paleo diet for treatment of metabolic syndrome.[9] As of 2014 there was no evidence the paleo diet is effective in treating inflammatory bowel disease.[21]

The rationale for the Paleolithic diet derives from proponents’ claims relating to evolutionary medicine.[22] Advocates of the diet state that humans were genetically adapted to eating specifically those foods that were readily available to them in their local environments. These foods therefore shaped the nutritional needs of Paleolithic humans. They argue that the physiology and metabolism of modern humans have changed little since the Paleolithic era.[23] Natural selection is a long process, and the cultural and lifestyle changes introduced by western culture have occurred quickly. The argument is that modern humans have therefore not been able to adapt to the new circumstances.[24] The agricultural revolution brought the addition of grains and dairy to the diet.[25]

According to the model from the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, “[M]any chronic diseases and degenerative conditions evident in modern Western populations have arisen because of a mismatch between Stone Age genes and modern lifestyles.”[26] Advocates of the modern Paleo diet have formed their dietary recommendations based on this hypothesis. They argue that modern humans should follow a diet that is nutritionally closer to that of their Paleolithic ancestors.

The evolutionary discordance is incomplete, since it is based mainly on the genetic understanding of the human diet and a unique model of human ancestral diets, without taking into account the flexibility and variability of the human dietary behaviors over time.[27] Studies of a variety of populations around the world show that humans can live healthily with a wide variety of diets, and that in fact, humans have evolved to be flexible eaters.[28] Lactose tolerance is an example of how some humans have adapted to the introduction of dairy into their diet. While the introduction of grains, dairy, and legumes during the Neolithic revolution may have had some adverse effects on modern humans, if humans had not been nutritionally adaptable, these technological developments would have been dropped.[29]

Evolutionary biologist Marlene Zuk writes that the idea that our genetic makeup today matches that of our ancestors is misconceived, and that in debate Cordain was “taken aback” when told that 10,000 years was “plenty of time” for an evolutionary change in human digestive abilities to have taken place.[3]:114 On this basis Zuk dismisses Cordain’s claim that the paleo diet is “the one and only diet that fits our genetic makeup”.[3]

Advocates of the diet argue that the increase in diseases of affluence after the dawn of agriculture was caused by changes in diet, but others have countered that it may be that pre-agricultural hunter-gatherers did not suffer from the diseases of affluence because they did not live long enough to develop them.[30] Based on the data from hunter-gatherer populations still in existence, it is estimated that at age15, life expectancy was an additional 39 years, for a total age of 54.[31] At age 45, it is estimated that average life expectancy was an additional 19 years, for a total age of 64 years.[32][33] That is to say, in such societies, most deaths occurred in childhood or young adulthood; thus, the population of elderlyand the prevalence of diseases of affluencewas much reduced. Excessive food energy intake relative to energy expended, rather than the consumption of specific foods, is more likely to underlie the diseases of affluence. “The health concerns of the industrial world, where calorie-packed foods are readily available, stem not from deviations from a specific diet but from an imbalance between the energy humans consume and the energy humans spend.”[34]

Adoption of the Paleolithic diet assumes that modern humans can reproduce the hunter-gatherer diet. Molecular biologist Marion Nestle argues that “knowledge of the relative proportions of animal and plant foods in the diets of early humans is circumstantial, incomplete, and debatable and that there are insufficient data to identify the composition of a genetically determined optimal diet. The evidence related to Paleolithic diets is best interpreted as supporting the idea that diets based largely on plant foods promote health and longevity, at least under conditions of food abundance and physical activity.”[35] Ideas about Paleolithic diet and nutrition are at best hypothetical.[36]

The data for Cordain’s book only came from six contemporary hunter-gatherer groups, mainly living in marginal habitats.[37] One of the studies was on the !Kung, whose diet was recorded for a single month, and one was on the Inuit.[37][38][39] Due to these limitations, the book has been criticized as painting an incomplete picture of the diets of Paleolithic humans.[37] It has been noted that the rationale for the diet does not adequately account for the fact that, due to the pressures of artificial selection, most modern domesticated plants and animals differ drastically from their Paleolithic ancestors; likewise, their nutritional profiles are very different from their ancient counterparts. For example, wild almonds produce potentially fatal levels of cyanide, but this trait has been bred out of domesticated varieties using artificial selection. Many vegetables, such as broccoli, did not exist in the Paleolithic period; broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and kale are modern cultivars of the ancient species Brassica oleracea.[29]

Trying to devise an ideal diet by studying contemporary hunter-gatherers is difficult because of the great disparities that exist; for example, the animal-derived calorie percentage ranges from 25% for the Gwi people of southern Africa to 99% for the Alaskan Nunamiut.[40]

Researchers have proposed that cooked starches met the energy demands of an increasing brain size, based on variations in the copy number of genes encoding for amylase.[41][42]

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Paleolithic diet – Wikipedia

Apr 12

What Is COPD, How Can It Be Treated, and What Are The Risks?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is by definition an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.

Many people mistake their increased breathlessness and coughing as a normal part of aging. In the early stages of the disease, you may not notice the symptoms. COPD can develop for years without noticeable shortness of breath. You begin to see the symptoms in the more developed stages of the disease.

Damage to the lung tissue over time causes physical changes in the tissues of the lungs and clogging of the airways with thick mucus. The tissue damage in the lungs leads to poor compliance (the elasticity, or ability of the lung tissue to expand).


The decrease in elasticity of the lungs means that oxygen in the air cannot get by obstructions (for example, thick mucus plugs) to reach air spaces (alveoli) where oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occurs in the lung. Consequently, the person exhibits a progressive difficulty, first coughing to remove obstructions like mucus, and then in breathing, especially with exertion.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Symptoms


People with COPD can often mistake their symptoms for other respiratory problems, such as exercise induced asthma or a bad cold. If you have any of the following symptoms, you should see your doctor as soon as possible:

  • Wheezing
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Fatigue
  • Multiple respiratory infections
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) that gets worse with mild activity
  • Having to clear your throat first thing in the morning, due to excess mucus in your lungs
  • A chronic cough that may produce mucus (sputum) that may be clear, white, yellow or greenish
  • Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis)
  • Frequent respiratory infections
  • Unintended weight loss (in later stages)
  • Swelling in ankles, feet or legs


If left untreated, COPD can lead to hospitalization and even death. Be proactive if you are showing signs of the disease and be evaluated by your physician promptly.

What Causes COPD?

The main cause of COPD in developed countries is tobacco smoking. In the developing world, COPD often occurs in people exposed to fumes from burning fuel for cooking and heating in poorly ventilated homes.


Only about 20 to 30 percent of chronic smokers may develop clinically apparent COPD, although many smokers with long smoking histories may develop reduced lung function. Some smokers develop less common lung conditions. They may be misdiagnosed as having COPD until a more thorough evaluation is performed.

Exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace, exposure to heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution, frequent use of a cooking fire without proper ventilation, and genetic problems like Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency are also causes of COPD.

Stages of COPD


One way to establish stages for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease program (GOLD).


The staging is based on the results of a pulmonary function test. Specifically, the forced expiratory volume (how much air one can exhale forcibly) in one second (FEV1) of a standard predicted value is measured, based on the individual patient’s physical parameters.


The stages are as follows:

  • Stage I is FEV1 of equal or more than 80% of the predicted value
  • Stage II is FEV1 of 50% to 79% of the predicted value
  • Stage III is FEV1 of 30% to 49% of the predicted value
  • Stage IV is FEV1 of less than 30% of predicted value or an FEV1 less than 50% of predicted value plus respiratory failure

Other staging methods are similar but are based on severity of the shortness of breath symptom.

COPD Treatment


Medical treatments of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include bronchodilators, steroids, mucolytic agents, oxygen therapy, and surgical procedures such as bullectomy, lung volume reduction surgery, and lung transplantation.

The treatments are often based on the stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, for example:

  • Stage I – short-acting bronchodilator as needed
  • Stage II – short-acting bronchodilator as needed and long-acting bronchodilators plus cardiopulmonary rehabilitation
  • Stage III – short-acting bronchodilator as needed, long-acting bronchodilators, cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, and inhaled glucocorticoids for repeated exacerbations
  • Stage IV – as needed, long-acting bronchodilators, cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, inhaled glucocorticoids, long-term oxygen therapy, possible lung volume reduction surgery, and possible lung transplantation (stage IV has been termed “end-stage” chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

The three major goals of the comprehensive treatment and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are to reduce airflow limitation, prevent and treat secondary medical complications, decrease respiratory symptoms, and improve quality of life.

The patient may need to be hospitalized if they develop severe respiratory dysfunction, if the disease progresses, or if they have other serious respiratory diseases. The purpose of hospitalization is to treat symptoms and to prevent further deterioration.


The patient may be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) if they require invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation or if they have the following symptoms:

  • Confusion
  • Lethargy
  • Respiratory muscle fatigue
  • Worsening hypoxemia (not enough oxygen in the blood)
  • Respiratory acidosis (retention of carbon dioxide in the blood)

Treatment of Moderate to Severe COPD


Doctors often use these additional therapies for people with moderate or severe COPD:


  • Oxygen therapy – Some people with COPD use oxygen only during activities or while sleeping. Others use oxygen all the time. Oxygen therapy can improve quality of life and is the only COPD therapy proven to extend life.


  • Pulmonary rehabilitation program. These programs generally combine education, exercise training, nutrition advice and counseling. You’ll work with a variety of specialists, who can tailor your rehabilitation program to meet your needs.

Even with ongoing treatment, you may experience times when symptoms become worse for days or weeks. This is called an acute exacerbation, and it may lead to lung failure if you don’t receive quick and appropriate treatment.

Exacerbations may be caused by a respiratory infection, air pollution, or other triggers of inflammation. Whatever the cause, it’s important to seek prompt medical help if you notice a sustained increase in coughing, a change in your mucus or if you have a harder time breathing.


When exacerbations occur, you may need additional medications, supplemental oxygen, or treatment in the hospital. Once symptoms improve, your doctor will talk with you about measures to prevent future exacerbations.


Surgical Procedures

Surgery is an option for some people with some forms of severe emphysema who aren’t helped sufficiently by medications alone. Surgical options include:

  • Lung volume reduction surgery. In this surgery, your surgeon removes small wedges of damaged lung tissue from the upper lungs. This creates extra space in your chest cavity so that the remaining healthier lung tissue can expand, and the diaphragm can work more efficiently.


  • Lung transplant. Lung transplantation may be an option for certain people who meet specific criteria. Transplantation can improve your ability to breathe and to be active. However, it’s a major operation that has significant risks, such as organ rejection, and it requires taking lifelong immune-suppressing medications.


  • Bullectomy. Large air spaces (bullae) form in the lungs when the walls of the air sacs are destroyed. These bullae can become very large and cause breathing problems. In a bullectomy, doctors remove bullae from the lungs to help improve air flow.

Can You Live Well With COPD?


There are many things you can do at home to stay as healthy as you can.

  • Avoid things that can irritate your lungs, such as smoke and air pollution.
  • Use an air filter in your home.
  • Get regular exercise to stay as strong as you can.
  • Eat well so you can keep up your strength. If you are losing weight, ask your doctor or dietitian about ways to make it easier to get the calories you need.

As COPD progresses, you may have flare-ups when your symptoms quickly get worse and stay worse. It is important to know what to do if this happens. Many doctors will give you an action plan and medicines to help you breathe if you have a flare-up. But if the attack is severe, you may need to go to the emergency room.

Knowing that you have a disease that gets worse over time can be hard. It’s common to feel sad or hopeless sometimes. Having trouble breathing can also make you feel very anxious. If these feelings last, be sure to tell your doctor. Counseling, medicine, and support groups can help you cope.



Apr 11

How To Increase Your Testosterone Levels In 2018


You probably know that testosterone is important for men. After all, it’s responsible for things like sex drive, sperm count, fat distribution, red blood cell count, and muscle strength.

When you have low levels of testosterone, there are significant negative side effects, including:

Diminished sex drive
Muscle loss
Increased breast size
Erectile dysfunction or impotence
Depression, irritability, and the inability to concentrate
Loss of hair
Shrunken testes
Low energy
Decreased physical endurance
Increased chance of bone fractures

It’s absolutely essential for you to maintain healthy levels of testosterone in order to function effectively.

This raises an important question: how can you increase testosterone levels?

After all, it’s one thing to know that you have low testosterone levels; it’s something else altogether to increase them.

Consider this article a primer on increasing your testosterone levels. We’re going to break down the what, why, and how so that you are able to make informed decisions about your health.

What Is Testosterone?

Before we discuss how to increase your testosterone levels, it’s essential to understand what exactly what testosterone is.

Testosterone is a male sex hormone that’s essential for both reproductive development and sexual health. It’s part of a class of hormones called androgens (also known as “steroids” or “anabolic steroids”). While women do have testosterone in their bodies, their levels are around one-tenth to one-twentieth what’s found in men.

Testosterone is primarily created in the testes, although a small amount is also produced from the adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland work together to control a man’s testosterone production, with the hypothalamus instructing the pituitary gland and those instructions being passed on to the testes.

The hormone is also responsible for the initial development of male sex organs before birth, as well as the changes that happen at puberty like increased penis and testes size, increased facial and body hair, and a deeper voice.


Causes Of Low Testosterone

Normal levels of testosterone fall anywhere between 300-1000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl), with free testosterone levels usually being between 3-9 ng/dl.

There are a number of causes of low testosterone levels, including:

Pituitary gland problems
Toxin or heavy metal exposure
Anabolic steroid use
And many others…

Dr. Robert Kominiarek notes:

Most commonly, I find some history of neurologic insult as the cause — a traumatic brain injury with or without loss of consciousness, stroke, surgery, medical imaging with iodinated contrast, medication, illegal drug use, excessive alcohol [consumption], toxin or heavy metal exposure, prior anabolic steroid use, penetrating or blunt trauma, radiation, chemotherapy, [arrhythmia], motorcycle accident, rollercoaster rides, boxing, martial arts, football, and the list goes on.

The point is that while there are numerous reasons for low testosterone, the cause may not be immediately apparent. And while identifying the underlying cause is crucial, it’s even more important to know how to bring testosterone levels back to normal levels.

If you think you have low testosterone levels, the easiest way to confirm your suspicion is to have your doctor perform a simple blood test.

If your levels fall below the “normal” range, then you have a problem that, thankfully, can be corrected.

How To Raise Testosterone Levels

If testing reveals that you have low testosterone levels, there are some relatively simple, yet powerful ways to increase them.

Improved Diet

The simplest, most natural place to start is with your diet. Saturated and monounsaturated fats have both been to shown to increase testosterone levels. As a study in the Journal of Applied Physiology notes:

Individuals consuming a diet containing ?20% fat compared with a diet containing ?40% fat have significantly lower concentrations of T. Also, replacement of dietary carbohydrate with protein has been shown to decrease T concentrations. These studies indicate that the energy supplied by the different macronutrients has a significant influence on T concentrations.

In other words, if your diet is high in healthy fat, there’s a greater chance that your overall testosterone levels will be higher.

Some outstanding, high-fat foods to incorporate into your diet are:

Red meat
Olive and coconut oil
Peanut butter

Two things to remember, however, as you bring these foods into your diet. First, if you’re not carefully monitoring your calorie intake, you can put on weight, which is not good for your health. Second, it’s important to not cut your carbohydrate intake when you add high-fat foods to your diet. Consuming low amounts of carbs can increase cortisol, which then decreases testosterone. It’s essential to balance your intake of carbs and fats.


In addition to improving your diet, taking supplements can also be an effective, natural way to maintain your overall testosterone levels. One thing to note: the only supplements that seems to have a connection with raising testosterone levels are vitamin D3 and omega-3 fish oil. All other supplements help in maintaining optimal health levels.

So what supplements should you be taking?

Zinc gluconate – low levels of zinc can lead to lower testosterone levels.

Magnesium – magnesium is essential for muscle health, sleep, and energy. When you’re low on magnesium you may have lower testosterone levels as well.


There are numerous studies that have demonstrated the testosterone boosting power of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). As William Kraemer notes:

Resistance exercise has been shown to elicit a significant acute hormonal response. It appears that this acute response is more critical to tissue growth and remodelling than chronic changes in resting hormonal concentrations, as many studies have not shown a significant change during resistance training despite increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy. Anabolic hormones such as testosterone and the superfamily of growth hormones (GH) have been shown to be elevated during 15-30 minutes of post-resistance exercise providing an adequate stimulus is present. [emphasis added]

HIIT involves doing exercises at a high intensity for short periods interspersed with periods of rest.

The best type of HIIT exercises are those which involve and stimulate as many muscles as possible. Some outstanding exercises include:

Kettlebell exercises. Doing kettlebell swings, deadlifts, curls, snatches, and squats can get your body into a prime testosterone producing state.

Sprints. Flying down the track at top speed pushes your body to the max and encourages it to produce more testosterone.

Don’t Cut Calories Too Often

There’s a fine line between trying to lose weight and keeping your testosterone levels high. When you diet for long periods of time, your body reduces testosterone levels. Returning to normal calories level will bring your levels back up to normal.

If you’re going to diet, don’t overdo it. Balance your calorie cuts with your standard diet.

Go To Sleep

Most production of testosterone happens when you sleep. In fact, if you don’t wake up with a morning erection, you might have low testosterone levels.

If you sleep fewer than five hours per night, it can reduce your testosterone levels by up to 15%. Additionally, low sleep typically increases cortisol levels, which also diminishes the amount of testosterone in your body.

To keep your testosterone levels high, be sure to get a solid night’s sleep.


Testosterone is one of things you take for granted while it’s there. But low testosterone can be seriously problematic and dramatically reduce the quality of your life. A decreased sex life can hurt your relationships, reduced energy can lower the quality of your work, and extra weight can take a strain on your body. Testosterone is essential for a good life.

Thankfully, if you have low levels, you can take steps to repair your body. Most of these steps are simple, like exercising, sleeping well, and eating a healthy diet. These natural solutions are much better than medical alternatives like hormone therapy or testosterone patches.

If you think your deficient in testosterone, take action. It doesn’t usually fix itself. Take steps in the right direction today.

Source: Vitamonk

Jan 8

Keto diet ranks last on 2018 ‘best diets’ list – CNN

Both stress eating a ton of protein and minimal carbs, putting the dieter into “ketosis,” when the body breaks down both ingested and stored body fat into ketones, which it uses as energy. People on such diets often deal with fatigue and light-headedness as they adjust to a lack of carbohydrates.

Though the experts on the US News and World Report panel that created the list said eating that way isn’t harmful short-term, they ranked the diets poorly on long-term weight loss success, ease of use and overall impact on health.

“When you are on the keto diet, you drastically cut your carbs to only 20 per day. That’s less than one apple!” said nutritionist Lisa Drayer, a CNN contributor. “The keto diet is just not sustainable over the long term. It doesn’t teach you how to acquire healthy eating habits. It’s good for a quick fix, but most people I know can hardly give up pasta and bread, let alone beans and fruit.”

The expert panel was particularly concerned for people with liver or kidney conditions, “who should avoid it altogether,” the report said, adding that there was not enough evidence to know whether the diet would help those with heart issues or diabetes. Because of the recommended “cycling” nature of the diet, taking breaks and then starting it again, experts also warn that hormones could fluctuate.

The panel slammed the diet as having “No independent research. Nonsensical claims. Extreme. Restrictive.” and tied it with the raw food diet as “the worst of the worst for healthy eating.”

First place is a tie

“What I love about both the DASH and Mediterranean diets is that they offer guiding principles for eating, like eating more fruits and vegetables, as well as whole grains, fish, legumes, nuts and low-fat dairy foods,” Drayer said. “I personally love the fact that a daily glass of red wine is encouraged as part of the Mediterranean diet.”

The DASH diet is often recommended to lower blood pressure. Its premise is simple: Eat more veggies, fruits and low-fat dairy foods while cutting way back on any food high in saturated fat and limit your intake of salt.

The meal plan includes three whole-grain products each day, four to six servings of vegetables, four to six servings of fruit, two to four servings of dairy products and several servings each of lean meats and nuts/seeds/legumes.

The Mediterranean diet also ranked first on the US News and World Report list for easiest diet to follow, best plant-based diet and best diet for diabetes. It came in second for best heart-healthy diet, just behind DASH.

The diet emphasizes simple, plant-based cooking, with the majority of each meal focused on fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans and seeds, with a few nuts and a heavy emphasis on extra virgin olive oil. Say goodbye to refined sugar or flour. Fats other than olive oil, such as butter, are consumed rarely, if at all.

Meat can make a rare appearance, but usually only to flavor a dish. Meals may include eggs, dairy and poultry, but in much smaller portions than in the traditional Western diet. However, fish are a staple, and an optional glass of wine with dinner is on the menu.

The ever-popular Weight Watchers diet was ranked fourth, followed by the MIND diet, a combination of the Mediterranean and DASH diets that some may find a bit easier to follow, as it requires less fish and fruit.

Best weight-loss diets

Weight Watchers topped the list of best weight-loss and best commercial diet plans, and it tied with HMR for best fast weight-loss diet. HMR, the Health Management Resources program, involves purchasing meal replacements, such as shakes, nutrition bars and multigrain cereals, and adding vegetables and fruits to round out the meals.

Since 2015, Weight Watchers has been focused on its Beyond the Scale program. It is designed to help people move more and focus on overall well-being, including more “me” time, which includes mindfulness and self-compassion.

Drayer agreed: “I’ve always been a fan of Weight Watchers because it teaches you how to incorporate all types of foods into your diet, and it also offers a support component, which can be extremely beneficial.”

But whatever diet you choose, she recommends choosing the one that fits your lifestyle and that you can stick to over the long term.

“I always recommend meeting with a registered dietitian, who can take into account your health history, lifestyle habits, likes and dislikes, and develop an eating plan that is specific to your needs,” she added. “I also recommend checking with your doctor first before starting any new diet plan.”

See more here:
Keto diet ranks last on 2018 ‘best diets’ list – CNN

Dec 31

Diet – SIBO- Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth

Dietary Treatments

All dietary treatments strive to reduce the food sources for the bacteria. They seek to feed the person but starve the bacteria. Our diet has a significant impact on our intestinal bacterial population. Bacteria primarily eat carbohydrates so all the recommended diets decrease carbohydrates to reduce the bacteria by limiting their food supply. The only carbohydrate that bacteria do not eat much of is insoluble fiber. The established SIBO treatment diets are the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD), the Gut and Psychology Syndrome Diet (Gaps Diet), the Low Fodmap Diet (LFD) or a combination of these diets such as SCD + LFD (see below). The established prevention diets include all the above plus the Cedars-Sinai Diet (see below). “Fermentable” refers to what bacteria eat.

Fermentable Carbohydrates/Saccharides:StarchResistant StarchSoluble FiberSugar (in all it’s forms)Prebiotics (inulin, FOS, MOS, GOS, arabinogalactan)

Sources of Fermentable Carbohydrates/Saccharides:Starch- grains, beans, starchy vegetablesResistant Starch- whole grains, seeds, legumesSoluble Fiber- grains, beans, nuts/seeds, vegetables, fruitSugar- fruit, sweetenersPrebiotics- agave, beans, vegetables, roots/herbs, supplements

My hope was that practitioners would customize the SIBO Specific Food Guide into more specific diet plans for their patients. Thats just what Dr. Jacobi did with the SIBO Bi-Phasic diet, and countless doctors and patients have benefited from it. The SIBO Bi-Phasic Diet puts the SSFG into phases, which are then combined with other treatment such as antimicrobials.

SIBO Bi-Phasic Diet

The Diet

This diet is famous for explaining and including lactose-free dairy foods, especially the introduction of 24-hour homemade yogurt as well as introducing nut-flour (predominantly almond flour), as a substitution for standard wheat and grain flours in baked goods or breading.

ResourcesBesides the book (BTVC), which contains great recipes (Lois Lang’s Bread and Basic Muffins are my favorites), there are a plethora of SCD websites which include free recipes, supplies and mail order foods. I highly recommend getting 1 or more of the SCD Cookbooks.

SCD Legal & Illegal Food Web ListSCD Legal & Illegal Food Handout- 4 pages (2 legal, 2 illegal) from healththroughdiet.comAlso see the Gaps Diet Food List for an easy 1 page version of allowed and not allowed foods.

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Diet – SIBO- Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth

Dec 31

Risk Factors: Diet – National Cancer Institute

Scientists have studied many foods and dietary components for possible associations with increasing or reducing cancer risk.

Credit: National Cancer Institute

Many studies have looked at the possibility that specific dietary components or nutrients are associated with increases or decreases in cancer risk. Studies of cancer cells in the laboratory and of animal models have sometimes provided evidence that isolated compounds may be carcinogenic (or have anticancer activity).

But with few exceptions, studies of human populations have not yet shown definitively that any dietary component causes or protects against cancer. Sometimes the results of epidemiologic studies that compare the diets of people with and without cancer have indicated that people with and without cancer differ in their intake of a particular dietary component.

However, these results show only that the dietary component is associated with a change in cancer risk, not that the dietary component is responsible for, or causes, the change in risk. For example, study participants with and without cancer could differ in other ways besides their diet, and it is possible that some other difference accounts for the difference in cancer.

When evidence emerges from an epidemiologic study that a dietary component is associated with a reduced risk of cancer, a randomized trial may be done to test this possibility. Random assignment to dietary groups ensures that any differences between people who have high and low intakes of a nutrient are due to the nutrient itself rather than to other undetected differences. (For ethical reasons, randomized studies are not generally done when evidence emerges that a dietary component may be associated with an increased risk of cancer.)

Scientists have studied many additives, nutrients, and other dietary components for possible associations with cancer risk. These include:

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Risk Factors: Diet – National Cancer Institute

Dec 31

Military Diet Review – Meal Plan, Results, Substitutions…

Weight loss is never easy. In fact, it requires a strong will and unyielding determination. Your weight loss results also greatly depend on the lifestyle youre leading. If youre more into lazing around the house rather than heading for the gym, your chances of dropping a few extra pounds are seriously undermined. But that doesnt mean that there is no way to lose some weight. Continue reading about The Military Diet below

The Military Diet is one of the latest weight loss trends, which has virtually taken the world like wildfire, mostly because of its simplicity and effectiveness.

If youre already familiar with it, then your first association is probably lose 10 pounds in a week or 30 pounds in a month. This will sound implausible to most people, simply because we are all rather skeptical when it comes to diet plans that guarantee fast weight loss results. But, the Military Diet is not a typical starvation diet. While its low in calories, at the same time it comprises carbohydrates, protein and healthy fats, all of which are needed for optimal body function.

Losing 10 pounds a week without depriving your body of the essential nutrients it depends on for proper function may sound too good to be true. But, the truth is most of those dieters whove tried it, vouch for its efficacy.

The Military Diet, however, is not walking a path of roses. If you want to know how this diet gives such great weight loss results in no time, and more importantly, whether its suited for you, read on and find out!

The Military Diet has been conceived as a form of intermittent fasting that covers a period of one week. In other words, there are two phases to this diet a set low-calorie meal plan for the first 3 days of the diet followed by a less restrictive 4-day dietary regimen.

The total calorie intake for the 3-day phase ranges from 1,000-1,400 calories per day. The remaining 4 days revolve around healthy food as well and dieters are advised to keep their calorie intake low.

The diet can be repeated several times until a desired weight loss goal is reached.

Despite the common belief that the Military Diet has originally been intended for the US army, in reality, it has nothing to do with any military organization. Its also knows as the navy diet, the army diet, even the ice cream diet.

There are a number of reasons that make the Military Diet so effective. First of all, its low in calories meaning itll lead to a calorie (energy) deficit in your body. To make up for it, your body will have to use stored fat as fuel. In other words, youll lose weight.

Next, it involves intermittent fasting, which is extremely beneficial for weight loss. Fasting increases insulin sensitivity, which means the nutrients you ingest go into your muscle and liver cells rather than your fat cells.

You may say that the Military Diet plan is not really fasting as you have 3 meals a day. However, the daily calorie intake is very low and any diet plan with a calorie intake of 1,000 calories per day or lower is considered fasting.

Last, but not least, this dietary regimen aims at increasing your metabolic rate; a metabolic rate being the number of calories burnt. The foods in the Military Diet plan include high protein foods, high fiber foods and foods rich in calcium. They are highly beneficial for increasing your fat-burning metabolism.

Aside from its fast diet efficacy, there are several other factors that contribute to the widespread popularity of the Military Diet. First, its the time factor. Namely, this diet lasts 3 days only, and taken that most diet plans cover longer periods, this is extremely motivating for dieters. You do have to continue the low calorie intake for the remaining 4 days (this is actually a 7-day diet plan!), but these are not as restrictive as the first three days. You can eat whatever you want, whenever you want during the day as long as your calorie intake remains around 1,500. Plus, you see the results in very short time, which is highly motivating for dieters to continue losing weight and increase their weight loss results even more.

Then, theres the simplicity factor. This diet is so simple that you dont have to count calories or search high and low for magic potions that will miraculously reduce your waistline. All you need is some common foods you probably already have in your kitchen. Even if dont, they are all easily available at any grocery store.

Finally, its the no-starvation factor. You get to eat three nutrient-rich meals a day and drink as much coffee and tea as you like (you do need to watch out for calories from cream or sugar though!). The meals on this diet plan may be low in calories, but they are a great combination of dietary fat, carbohydrate and protein, which reduce cravings. Plus, the meals are simple and easy to prepare and require spending very little time in the kitchen. And, its probably the only diet that allows ice cream and hotdogs!

One of the most appealing aspects of the Military Diet is that it helps you lose up to 10 pounds in only 3 days, which makes it ideal for people who want to slim down fast. Some important events in life, such as your best friends engagement party or simply an unplanned beach holiday, often catch you off-guard. If you want to look your best at the party or get beach ready, then this diet is just what you need. Itll get your body back in shape in virtually 72 hours.

This diet is also well-suited for people who are time-bound and cant afford spending their time shopping for ingredients or preparing time-consuming meals. The meals on the Military Diet are very simple and straight-forward making this dietary regimen very easy to comply with.

Over eaters can also benefits from this diet as the portions are rather small, which prevents going over the board with meals. Plus, you dont feel food-deprived in any regard because the meals include fat, carbs ad salt.

Vegetarians can also follow the Military Diet by replacing the animal protein and dairy with vegan alternatives.

The meal plan for the first day totals about 1,400 calories.




The meals for the second day of the dietary regimen amount to 1,200 calories.




The meals for the third day of the diet plan equal around 1,100 calories.




While the first 3 days of the diet have a set menu, the remaining 4 days are far less restrictive. You should stick to a healthy, well-balanced diet and keep your calorie intake below 1,500.

For people with dietary restrictions or food sensitivity, substitutions are acceptable for the 3-day diet plan. For instance, if youre allergic to peanuts, you can swap peanut butter with almond butter. Or, if youre a vegetarian, you can replace tuna with a serving of almonds. The only thing to comply with is the number of calories you consume.

Last, but not least, avoid drinking diet sodas and other artificially-sweetened beverages, even if they have zero calories, as these only reduce your weight loss results. Instead, increase your water intake as water is the staple for any diet plan it promotes fat burning and toxin elimination while curbing food cravings.

If you want the diet printed, click here to download it.

Even though the Military Diet is quite effective and gives great results in only a weeks time, you can lose even more weight by implementing several things on the way. As you already know, exercise is extremely beneficial for any weight loss plan simply because you burn calories when exercising. Since your calorie intake on the Military Diet will be very low, the calories burnt during exercise will be drawn from your fat stores. This will further increase your weight loss results than simply dieting without exercise.

But, dont worry if you are time-bound or cant afford expensive gym membership fees. Brisk walking for 20-30 minutes on a daily basis is all you need to speed up the fat burning process.

Another thing to have in mind is the importance of drinking lots of water. Water is filling and will help you feel full longer. Drinking water before meals is highly beneficial because it reduces appetite and helps you eat less than normal. Plus, its calorie-free, which means you can drink as much as you want.

Last, but not least, you can extend the duration of the Military Diet. In this case, your diet plan will cover a whole week as youll repeat days 1-3 and then day 1 again to complete a weeks duration. Although this will give optimal weight loss results, have in mind that it will also be quite challenging.

Its a fact that the military diet can help you lose 10 pounds in a week simply because its a low-calorie diet plan. However, it cant prevent weight gain in the long-run, i.e. when you start eating normally again, especially if your calorie intake exceeds the recommended limit. The thing is, all the excess calories in your body remain stored as fat and unless this fat is burnt through creating a calorie deficit in the body or physical exercise, theres no way you can possibly prevent weight regain.

On the other hand, 2,000 calories a day is all an average woman needs to avoid weight gain. And, you have to admit, this isnt a small amount of calories. If you cut out fast food (an average 14-inch Pizza hut pizza contains 2,400 calories, a Big Mac 550 calories, and a liter of Coke 400 calories) and stick to a healthy, well-balanced diet that provides no more than 2,000 calories a day, youve got all it takes to prevent weight gain in the long run.

The Military Diet is ideal for people who want to slim down fast. Its a simple, straight-forward diet plan thats very low-cost and no time-consuming. It has fast diet efficacy and can help you lose up to 10 pounds a week.

However, this dietary regimen only gives temporary results. It is not recommended as a long-term weight loss plan due to its extremely low calorie allowance and nutrient deficiencies.

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Military Diet Review – Meal Plan, Results, Substitutions…

Dec 11

Home – The Paleo Diet

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Home – The Paleo Diet

Sep 7

Pizza? Fried chicken? Cubs and White Sox players talk about their … – Chicago Tribune

Cubs and White Sox players and Cubs manager Joe Maddon discuss how nutrition has changed in baseball.

Joe Maddon on how fitness and nutrition have changed over the years

It’s night and day. It’s completely different. For a long time nobody really … believed that a change in your diet or your methods of eating would actually help your performance. … Even in 2008 in Tampa Bay we tried to do that with a large amount of revolt. … But even going back before that, the spreads, whatever you want to call them, were just thrown out there without any kind of really message. There were Coke machines, soda machines, those little dispensers, the 7-Eleven stuff was all over the place. Nobody was really paying attention.

Like 2005 or so, 2010 in that area, it has become more prominent. I think guys have really understood that, ‘Hey, it does make a difference what I put in there.’ It just makes all the sense in the world. Even though the education may have been out there nobody was really listening. So I think it’s absolutely here to stay. This is not going to go away. Everybody is going to continue to try and improve their methods regarding nurturing themselves. And it’s a good thing. It’s actually a really good thing. Right now, every place we go over the last couple of years it’s even gotten better because we’re paying so much attention to it.

Pitcher Nate Jones on how his diet changed

In the minor leagues, they start teaching you about what’s good and not good to eat. Once you get up here, you start adding vitamins and supplements. I stay away from anything greasy and fatty foods. Even though they taste good I try to stay away from them. You realize how important fish is and obviously grilled chicken breast. Little bit of red meat here and there and, of course, all the vegetables you can eat.

Mike Montgomery on nutrition

I’m very aware of it. They do a good job of providing us with stuff that is healthy and supplements that you maybe don’t know but, hey, this will really help your recovery. That’s pretty cool that they do that. You’re aware that you want to feel good or play good you want to give yourself the best chance and feel as good as you can.

Montgomery on foods he eats to stay healthy

It’s just really a lot of fruits and vegetables. That’s very important recovery-wise and getting the right proteins. And just staying away from fatty foods, fast food. I’m not a super health freak, but I try to be a little bit conscious of it. I’d rather just go with that healthier option.

Ben Zobrist on his diet

When I was younger I’d eat whatever I wanted. It didn’t matter. Now you just feel the effects a lot more as you’re into your mid-30s.

I always eat greens. I always take vitamins. I always drink a lot of water. During the season when you’re playing every day you have to get a lot of calories and protein. I watch a little bit more of the bread intake. Just simple sugars. I try to keep down the simple sugars and keep filling my stomach with natural vitamins. I think greens are the thing that, I’m always like, ‘I know I have to eat this.’ I have to keep eating these vegetables, fruit, stuff like that.

Zobrist on his cheat food

Usually like something very bready like pasta. I can’t do that multiple days in a row. I can do that once a week, maybe just crush a bunch of pasta because I need the calories and carbs. I try to watch that a little bit more.

Montgomery’s cheat food

Fried chicken. I love me some fried chicken.

Pitcher Zach Putnam on his diet

I eat a lot of seafood. But my diet changes from what part of the year it is. During the season you’re constantly in recovery mode, so a lot of proteins and particularly fish and chicken. During the offseason I try to go low-carb to try and keep my body lean and trim and stuff. That provides its own challenges. Eating a grilled chicken breast and a salad on paper sounds great, but day 30 in a row of that, you’re asking where the real food is at. It’s a constant battle for me to maintain sanity and also walk that line between what’s healthy, what’s tasty.

Infielder Matt Davidson on healthy foods he enjoys

I eat a lot of vegetables. Kevan Smith and I, we started in spring training where we would eat handfuls of raw spinach. We’re not afraid of anything that doesn’t taste good.

Putnam on his cheat foods

I’ll go six days of just completely clean eating and like a Saturday or Sunday, sit down in front of the TV for some football and where I live, there’s a cheesesteak place that’s a regular stop for me on a cheat day. Pretty usual stuff: cheeseburgers, tacos, pizza, buffalo wings. Really, I try to do a really good job on the other six days so I can appreciate the cheat day.

Jones on his cheat foods

I would call that a pizza night. We even try it at home, because I have two kids, we even try to do a homemade pizza and sometimes my wife does a cauliflower crust for it and that makes it even better.

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Pizza? Fried chicken? Cubs and White Sox players talk about their … – Chicago Tribune

Sep 7

Treating Reflux With Diet – New York Times


A small study has found that a plant-based diet is just as effective as proton pump inhibitors in treating laryngopharyngeal reflux, or LPR.

LPR is a disease in which stomach acid comes up into the throat to the level of the laryngopharynx. It is not the same as gastro-esophageal reflux, or GERD, which involves a backflow of stomach acid into the lower esophagus.

The retrospective study, in JAMA Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, included 85 patients with an average age of 60 treated with the P.P.I.s Nexium and Dexilant, and 99 treated with alkaline water and the Mediterranean diet, a regimen low in meat and dairy, and rich in olive oil, nuts, fish, beans, fruits and vegetables. The study ran for six weeks.

The scientists used an index that measures severity of symptoms excess throat mucus, annoying cough, heartburn and others on a zero to 45-point scale.

In the P.P.I. group, 54 percent achieved a clinically significant six point reduction on the index, compared with 63 percent for the diet cohort. The average score reduction was 27 percent for those in the P.P.I. group and 40 percent for the dieters.

If you think you have LPR, you should do a diet-based approach, instead of initiating these drugs that have potential side effects, said the lead author, Dr. Craig H. Zalvan, chief of otolaryngology at Phelps Hospital in Sleepy Hollow, N.Y. A lot of patients with GERD symptoms also get better on the diet.

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Treating Reflux With Diet – New York Times

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